Response of Monsoon Rainfall to Changes in the Latitude of the Equatorward Coastline of a Zonally Symmetric Continent
Recent studies have shown that the rapid onset of the monsoon can be interpreted as a switch in the tropical circulation, which can occur even in the absence of land–sea contrast, from a dynamical regime controlled by eddy momentum fluxes to a monsoon regime more directly controlled by energetic constraints. Here we investigate how one aspect of continental geometry, that is, the position of the equatorward coastal boundary, influences such transitions. Experiments are conducted with an aquaplanet model with a slab ocean, in which different zonally symmetric continents are prescribed in the Northern Hemisphere poleward from southern boundaries at various latitudes, with "land" having a mixed layer depth two orders of magnitude smaller than ocean. For continents extending to tropical latitudes, the simulated monsoon features a rapid migration of the convergence zone over the continent, similar to what is seen in observed monsoons. For continents with more poleward southern boundaries, the main precipitation zone remains over the ocean, moving gradually into the summer hemisphere. We show that the absence of land at tropical latitudes prevents the rapid displacement into the subtropics of the maximum in lower-level moist static energy and, with it, the establishment of an overturning circulation with a subtropical convergence zone that can transition rapidly into an angular momentum–conserving monsoon regime.
Additional Information© 2021 American Meteorological Society. Manuscript received 21 April 2020, in final form 28 January 2021. Published online: 12 Apr 2021. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (AGS-1462544) and Caltech's Terrestrial Hazards Observation and Reporting (THOR) Center. We thank three anonymous reviewers, whose comments greatly improved the manuscript.