First broadband characterization and redshift determination of the VHE blazar MAGIC J2001+439
Aims. We aim to characterize the broadband emission from 2FGL J2001.1+4352, which has been associated with the unknown-redshift blazar MG4 J200112+4352. Based on its gamma-ray spectral properties, it was identified as a potential very high energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter. We investigate whether this object is aVHE emitter, characterize its gamma-ray spectrum, and study the broadband emission within the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario, which is commonly used to describe the emission in blazars. Moreover, we also intend to determine the redshift of this object, which is a crucial parameter for its scientific interpretation. Methods. The source was observed with MAGIC first in 2009 and later in 2010 within a multi-instrument observation campaign. The MAGIC observations yielded 14.8 h of good quality stereoscopic data. Besides MAGIC, the campaign involved, observations with Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT/UVOT, the optical telescopes KVA, Goddard Robotic Telescope, Galaxy View observatory, Crimean Astrophysical observatory, St. Petersburg observatory, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The object was monitored at radio, optical and gamma-ray energies during the years 2010 and 2011. We characterize the radio to VHE spectral energy distribution and quantify the multiband variability and correlations over short (few days) and long (many months) timescales. We also organized deep imaging optical observations with the Nordic Optical Telescope in 2013 to determine the source redshift. Results. The source, named MAGIC J2001+439, is detected for the first time at VHE with MAGIC at a statistical significance of 6.3σ (E > 70 GeV) during a 1.3 h long observation on 2010 July 16. The multi-instrument observations show variability in all energy bands with the highest amplitude of variability in the X-ray and VHE bands. Besides the variability on few-day timescales, the long-term monitoring of MAGIC J2001+439 shows that, the gamma-ray, optical, and radio emissions gradually decreased on few-month timescales from 2010 through 2011, indicating that at least some of the radio, optical and gamma-ray emission is produced in a single region by the same population of particles. We also determine for the first time the redshift of this BL Lac object through the measurement of its host galaxy during low blazar activity. Using the observational evidence that the luminosities of BL Lac host galaxies are confined to a relatively narrow range, we obtain z = 0.18 ± 0.04. Additionally, we use the Fermi-LAT and MAGIC gamma-ray spectra to provide an independent redshift estimation, z = 0.17 ± 0.10. Using the former (more accurate) redshift value, we adequately describe the broadband emission with a one-zone SSC model for different activity states and interpret the few-day timescale variability as produced by changes in the high-energy component of the electron energy distribution.
Additional Information© 2014 ESO. Received 22 May 2014. Accepted 1 September 2014. We would like to thank the anonymous referee for providing detailed and constructive remarks that helped us to improve the manuscript. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN, the Swiss National Fund SNF, and the Spanish MICINN is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the CPAN CSD2007-00042 and MultiDark CSD2009-00064 projects of the Spanish Consolider-Ingenio 2010 program, by grant 127740 of the Academy of Finland, by the DFG Cluster of Excellence "Origin and Structure of the Universe", by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, and by the Polish MNiSzW grant 745/NHESS-MAGIC/2010/0. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges support from a number of agencies and institutes for both development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include NASA and DOE in the United States, CEA/Irfu and IN2P3/CNRS in France, ASI and INFN in Italy, MEXT, KEK, and JAXA in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support from INAF in Italy and CNES in France for science analysis during the operations phase is also gratefully acknowledged. We gratefully acknowledge the entire Swift team, the duty scientists and science planners for the dedicated support, making these observations possible. The data on this paper are based partly on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. We would like to thank T. Pursimo for performing the NOT observations used for the redshift determination. Part of the data were obtained with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. The St. Petersburg University team acknowledges support from the Russian RFBR foundation, grant 12-02-00452. The authors thank Svetlana Jorstad for kindly providing the optical calibration images. The OVRO 40 m monitoring program is supported in part by NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911 and NASA grants NNX08AW31G and NNX11AO43G. T.H. was supported by the Jenny and Antti Wihuri foundation. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Special thanks to Richard Schwartz, who performed observations with the Galaxy View observatory and diligently reduced the data while fighting against a pancreatic cancer during the last months of his life.
Published - aa24254-14.pdf
Submitted - 1409.3389v1.pdf