Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published April 15, 2010 | Supplemental Material + Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

The endoderm gene regulatory network in sea urchin embryos up to mid-blastula stage


As the result of early specification processes, sea urchin embryos eventually form various mesodermal cell lineages and a gut consisting of fore-, mid- and hindgut. The progression of specification as well as the overall spatial organization of the organism is encoded in its gene regulatory networks (GRNs). We have analyzed the GRN driving endoderm specification up to the onset of gastrulation and present in this paper the mechanisms which determine this process up to mid-blastula stage. At this stage, the embryo consists of two separate lineages of endoderm precursor cells with distinct regulatory states. One of these lineages, the veg2 cell lineage, gives rise to endoderm and mesoderm cell types. The separation of these cell fates is initiated by the spatially confined activation of the mesoderm GRN superimposed on a generally activated endoderm GRN within veg2 descendants. Here we integrate the architecture of regulatory interactions with the spatial restriction of regulatory gene expression to model the logic control of endoderm development.

Additional Information

© 2009 Elsevier Inc. Received 18 July 2009; revised 27 October 2009; accepted 27 October 2009. Available online 3 November 2009. We would like to thank Jina Yun for invaluable technical assistance, and Yi Fan and Eric Erkenbrack for their help with in situ hybridizations. We are also very pleased to acknowledge Smadar Ben-Tabou de Leon and R. Andrew Cameron for providing unpublished cis-regulatory data cited in text. The Blimp1 to hesC link in the new GRN in Fig. 9 is from Smith & Davidson, 2008. This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health grant HD-37105 and by a fellowship of the Swiss National Science Foundation to I.S.P.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms566445.pdf

Supplemental Material - applic1.doc

Supplemental Material - applic2.pdf


Files (13.1 MB)
Name Size Download all
75.3 kB Download
9.4 MB Preview Download
3.6 MB Preview Download

Additional details

August 21, 2023
October 20, 2023