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Published November 10, 2021 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Dispersion Mapping in 3-Dimensional Core–Shell Photonic Crystal Lattices Capable of Negative Refraction in the Mid-Infrared


Engineering of the dispersion properties of a photonic crystal (PhC) opens a new paradigm for the design and function of PhC devices. Exploiting the dispersion properties of PhCs allows control over wave propagation within a PhC. We describe the design, fabrication, and experimental observation of photonic bands for 3D PhCs capable of negative refraction in the mid-infrared. Band structure and equifrequency contours were calculated to inform the design of 3D polymer–germanium core–shell PhCs, which were fabricated using two-photon lithography direct laser writing and sputtering. We successfully characterized a polymer–Ge core–shell lattice and mapped its band structure, which we then used to calculate the PhC refraction behavior. An analysis of wave propagation revealed that this 3D core–shell PhC refracts light negatively and possesses an effective negative index of refraction in the experimentally observed region. These results suggest that architected nanolattices have the potential to serve as new optical components and devices across infrared frequencies.

Additional Information

© 2021 American Chemical Society. Received: July 22, 2021; Revised: October 13, 2021; Published: October 21, 2021. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Dow-Resnick Grant, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, under the MCMA program managed by J. Goldwasser (Contract No. W91CRB-10-0305), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46405). The authors also gratefully acknowledge the critical support and infrastructure provided by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. Author Contributions: V.F.C. and R.C.N. contributed equally. The authors declare no competing financial interest.

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August 20, 2023
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