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Published May 6, 2009 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Functional Connectivity of the Macaque Brain across Stimulus and Arousal States


Cortical networks generate temporally correlated brain activity. To clarify the functional significance of this correlated activity, we asked whether and how its structure depends on stimulus and arousal state. Using independent components analysis of macaque functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we identified a large number of brain networks that were strikingly reproducible across different visual stimulus contexts. Fewer networks were reproducible across alert and anesthetized brain states. Network complexity ranged from bilateral single-node networks to networks comprising multiple discrete nodes distributed over 3 cm of cortex; one network identified in our survey included parts of the temporal parietal occipital junction, dorsal premotor cortex, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Our results reveal the wealth of spatially structured correlated networks throughout the brain in both alert and anesthetized monkeys, and show that anesthesia significantly alters the spatial structure of these networks.

Additional Information

© 2009 Society for Neuroscience. Beginning six months after publication the Work will be made freely available to the public on SfN's website to copy, distribute, or display under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Received Jan. 15, 2009; revised March 9, 2009; accepted March 25, 2009. This work was supported by a Sofia Kovalevskaya Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and by the German Ministry of Science (Grant 01GO0506, Bremen Center for Advanced Imaging). We are grateful to Justin Vincent and two anonymous reviewers for comments on this manuscript, Christian Beckmann for help with MELODIC software, Nicole Schweers for help with animal training and scanning, Ramazani Hakizimana, Nicole Schweers, and Katrin Thoss for expert animal care, and Guerbet for providing Sinerem contrast agent.

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Supplemental Material - Supplemental_Figures.pdf

Supplemental Material - Supplemental_Legend.pdf


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