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Published May 13, 2021 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Noninvasive transcranial classification of stroke using a portable eddy current damping sensor


Existing paradigms for stroke diagnosis typically involve computed tomography (CT) imaging to classify ischemic versus hemorrhagic stroke variants, as treatment for these subtypes varies widely. Delays in diagnosis and transport of unstable patients may worsen neurological status. To address these issues, we describe the development of a rapid, portable, and accurate eddy current damping (ECD) stroke sensor. Copper wire was wound to create large (11.4 cm), medium (4.5 cm), and small (1.5 cm) solenoid coils with varying diameters, with each connected to an inductance-to-digital converter. Eight human participants were recruited between December 15, 2019 and March 15, 2020, including two hemorrhagic stroke, two ischemic stroke, one subarachnoid hemorrhage, and three control participants. Observers were blinded to lesion type and location. A head cap with 8 horizontal scanning paths was placed on the patient. The sensor was tangentially rotated across each row on the patient's head circumferentially. Consent, positioning, and scanning with the sensor took roughly 15 min from start to end for each participant and all scanning took place at the patient bedside. The ECD sensor accurately classified and imaged each of the varying stroke types in each patient. The sensor additionally detected ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions located deep inside the brain, and its range is selectively tunable during sensor design and fabrication.

Additional Information

© The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 06 October 2020; Accepted 30 April 2021; Published 13 May 2021. Author Contributions: S.S. designed experiments, conducted analysis, wrote manuscript, revised manuscript. G.Z. and A.B. assisted with human experiments and edited the manuscript. T.C. assisted with benchtop experiments. B.T. and B.Y. assisted with code for analysis. N.G. assisted with IRB approval and patient recruiting. N.S. assisted with his neuroradiology expertise in interpreting images. K.M.S. assisted with revisions. Y.T. designed experiments, guided direction of research, and edited the manuscript. Competing interests: Y.T., T.C., and S.S. have applied for a patent (US application number: 15/568,059 & International application number: PCT/US2019/050654) related to the work reported in this manuscript. G.Z., B.T., B.Y., N.G., N.S., and A.B., have no relevant disclosures to report.

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Published - s41598-021-89735-x.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41598_2021_89735_MOESM1_ESM.pdf


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August 22, 2023
October 23, 2023