Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published June 27, 2014 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Observing liquid flow in nanotubes by 4D electron microscopy


Nanofluidics involves the study of fluid transport in nanometer-scale structures. We report the direct observation of fluid dynamics in a single zinc oxide nanotube with the high spatial and temporal resolution of four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy. The nanotube is filled with metallic lead, which we melt in situ with a temperature jump induced by a heating laser pulse. We then use a short electron pulse to create an image of the ensuing dynamics of the hot liquid. Single-shot images elucidate the mechanism of irreversible processes, whereas stroboscopic diffraction patterns provide the heating and cooling rates of single nanotubes. The temporal changes of the images enable studies of the viscous friction involved in the flow of liquid within the nanotube, as well as studies of mechanical processes such as those that result in the formation of extrusions.

Additional Information

© 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received for publication 19 March 2014. Accepted for publication 27 May 2014. Supported by NSF grant DMR-0964886 and Air Force Office of Scientific Research grant FA9550-11-1-0055 in the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at Caltech, which is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. U.J.L. was partly supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Swiss National Science Foundation. www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6191/1496/suppl/DC1 Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Movies S1 and S2 References (34–40)

Attached Files

Supplemental Material - 1253618s1.mp4

Supplemental Material - 1253618s2.mp4

Supplemental Material - Lorenz.SM.pdf


Files (5.4 MB)
Name Size Download all
3.5 MB Preview Download
1.7 MB Download
235.0 kB Download

Additional details

August 20, 2023
October 26, 2023