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Published September 2012 | Published
Journal Article Open

CO_2 semiannual oscillation in the middle troposphere and at the surface


Using in situ measurements, we find a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the midtropospheric and surface CO_2. Chemistry transport models (2-D Caltech/JPL model, 3-D GEOS-Chem, and 3-D MOZART-2) are used to investigate possible sources for the SAO signal in the midtropospheric and surface CO_2. From model sensitivity studies, it is revealed that the SAO signal in the midtropospheric CO_2 originates mainly from surface CO_2 with a small contribution from transport fields. It is also found that the source for the SAO signal in surface CO_2 is mostly related to the CO_2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere. By comparing model CO_2 with in situ CO_2 measurements at the surface, we find that models are able to capture both annual and semiannual cycles well at the surface. Model simulations of the annual and semiannual cycles of CO_2 in the tropical middle troposphere agree reasonably well with aircraft measurements.

Additional Information

© 2012 American Geophysical Union. Received 24 May 2011; revised 22 April 2012; accepted 26 June 2012; published 28 July 2012. We thank two anonymous reviewers and the Associate Editor for the helpful comments. X. Jiang is supported by JPL grant G99694. M. Liang is supported by NSC grant 98-2111-M-001-014-MY3 to Academia Sinica. Y. L. Yung is supported by JPL grant P765982 to the California Institute of Technology.

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