The Ice-Rock Interface and Basal Sliding Process as Revealed by Direct Observation in Bore Holes and Tunnels
The glacier bed, where basal sliding occurs, was reached by cable-tool drilling and sand-pump bailing in seven bore holes in Blue Glacier, Olympic National Park, Washington. Basal sliding velocities measured by bore-hole photography and confirmed by inclinometry are unexpectedly low, ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 cm/day and averaging 1.0 cm/day. This is much less than about half the surface velocity of 15 cm/day, which was the sliding-rate expected from earlier deformation measurements in bore holes made by thermal drilling alone.
Additional Information© 1979 International Glaciological Society.