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Published December 16, 2021 | public
Journal Article Open

Evidence for Multiple Ferrel-Like Cells on Jupiter


Jupiter's atmosphere is dominated by multiple jet streams which are strongly tied to its 3D atmospheric circulation. Lacking a rigid bottom boundary, several models exist for how the meridional circulation extends into the planetary interior. Here, we show, collecting evidence from multiple instruments of the Juno mission, the existence of midlatitudinal meridional circulation cells which are driven by turbulence, similar to the Ferrel cells on Earth. Different than Earth, which contains only one such cell in each hemisphere, the larger, faster rotating Jupiter can incorporate multiple cells. The cells form regions of upwelling and downwelling, which we show are clearly evident in Juno's microwave data between latitudes 60°S and 60°N. The existence of these cells is confirmed by reproducing the ammonia observations using a simplistic model. This study solves a long-standing puzzle regarding the nature of Jupiter's subcloud dynamics and provides evidence for eight cells in each Jovian hemisphere.

Additional Information

© 2021. American Geophysical Union. Issue Online: 28 November 2021; Version of Record online: 28 November 2021; Accepted manuscript online: 25 October 2021; Manuscript accepted: 08 October 2021; Manuscript revised: 02 October 2021; Manuscript received: 15 August 2021. Keren Duer, Nimrod Gavriel, Eli Galanti and Yohai Kaspi are supported by the Israeli Space Agency and the Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science at the Weizmann Institute of Science. Leigh N. Fletcher was supported by a European Research Council Consolidator Grant (under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, grant agreement no 723890) at the University of Leicester. Davide Grassi is supported by the Italian Space Agency through ASI-INAF contract 2016-23-H.1-2018. Some of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). All authors have been supported by the Juno project. Data Availability Statement: All the data used in this study are publicly available, see Tollefson et al. (2017) for the winds data, Salyk et al. (2006) for the eddies data, Li et al. (2017) for the ammonia data, Brown et al. (2018) for the lightning data, and Oyafuso et al. (2020) for the brightness temperature data.

Attached Files

Published - 2021GL095651.pdf

Supplemental Material - 2021gl095651-sup-0001-supporting_information_si-s01.pdf


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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023