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Published June 1991 | Published
Journal Article Open

Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization


The authors have designed, fabricated, and tested vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) with diameters ranging from 0.5 µm to >50 µm. Design issues, molecular beam epitaxial growth, fabrication, and lasing characteristics are discussed. The topics considered in fabrication of VCSELs are microlaser geometries; ion implementation and masks; ion beam etching packaging and arrays, and ultrasmall devices.

Additional Information

© 1991 IEEE. Manuscript received November 14, 1990; revised February 26, 1991. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of a large group of collaborators without whom this work would not have been possible, including S. L. McCall, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, R. E. Leibenguth, C. A. Bunus, R. S. Tucker, N. A. Olsson, J. M. VanHove, Y. C. Chung, J. C. Jeong, V. D. Mattera, F. S. Choa, C. J. Sandroff, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, M. Orenstein, A. C. Von Lehmen, and C. Chang-Hasnain. J. P. H. would like to acknowledge the extensive amount of work done by L. Peterson in setting up the RHEED oscillation measurement system, without which the high degree of precision required for the growth of these structures would have been unachievable.

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