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Published October 20, 2015 | Published + Submitted
Journal Article Open

Antenna-coupled TES Bolometers Used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and Spider


We have developed antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor bolometers for a wide range of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry experiments, including Bicep2, Keck Array, and the balloon borne Spider. These detectors have reached maturity and this paper reports on their design principles, overall performance, and key challenges associated with design and production. Our detector arrays repeatedly produce spectral bands with 20%–30% bandwidth at 95, 150, or 230 GHz. The integrated antenna arrays synthesize symmetric co-aligned beams with controlled side-lobe levels. Cross-polarized response on boresight is typically ~ 0.5%, consistent with cross-talk in our multiplexed readout system. End-to-end optical efficiencies in our cameras are routinely 35% or higher, with per detector sensitivities of NET ~ 300 µK_(CMB√s). Thanks to the scalability of this design, we have deployed 2560 detectors as 1280 matched pairs in Keck Array with a combined instantaneous sensitivity of ~9 µK_CMB√s), as measured directly from CMB maps in the 2013 season. Similar arrays have recently flown in the Spider instrument, and development of this technology is ongoing.

Additional Information

© 2015 American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 March 2; accepted 2015 July 28; published 2015 October 20. The development of antenna-coupled detector technology was supported by the JPL Research and Technology Development Fund and grants 06-ARPA206-0040 and 10-SAT10-0017 from the NASA APRA and SAT programs. The development and testing of focal planes were supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation at Caltech. Readout electronics were supported by a Canada Foundation for Innovation grant to UBC. The receiver development was supported in part by a grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation. Bicep2 was supported by the US National Science Foundation under grants ANT-0742818 and ANT-1044978 (Caltech/Harvard) and ANT-0742592 and ANT-1110087 (Chicago/Minnesota). Some computations in this paper were run on the Odyssey cluster supported by the FAS Science Division Research Computing Group at Harvard University. We thank Warren Holmes and Matthew Kenyon for discussions on thermal conductivity. Tireless administrative support was provided by Irene Coyle and Kathy Deniston.

Attached Files

Submitted - 1502.00619v1.pdf

Published - Ade_2015p176.pdf


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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023