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Published March 4, 2013 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

Multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in reflection mode


Compared with single-focus optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), multifocal OR-PAM utilizes both multifocal optical illumination and an ultrasonic array transducer, significantly increasing the imaging speed. Here we present a reflection-mode multifocal OR-PAM system based on a microlens array that provides multiple foci and an ultrasonic array transducer that receives the excited photoacoustic waves from all foci simultaneously. By using a customized microprism to reflect the incident laser beam to the microlens array, we align the multiple optical foci confocally with the focal zone of the ultrasonic array transducer. Experiments show our reflection-mode multifocal ORPAM system is capable of imaging microvessels in vivo, and it can image a 9 mm x 5 mm x 2.5 mm volume at 16 μm lateral resolution in ~4 min, limited by the signal multiplexing ratio and laser pulse repetition rate.

Additional Information

© 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). This work was sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01 EB000712, R01 EB008085, R01 CA134539, U54 CA136398, R01 CA157277, R01 CA159959, and DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award). L. V. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work. K. I. Maslov has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., which did not support this work. The authors thank Liang Song, Lidai Wang, Junjie Yao, and Jun Xia for helpful discussions and experimental assistance.

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