Load-side Frequency Regulation with Limited Control Coverage
Increasing renewable energy increases uncertainty in energy systems. As a consequence, generator-side control for frequency regulation, impacted by the slow reaction of generators to meet urgent needs, may no longer suffice. With increasing integration of smart appliances which are able to sense, communicate and control, load-side control can help alleviate the aforementioned problem as it reacts fast and helps to localize disturbances. However, almost all existing methods for optimal load-side control require full information control coverage in the system. Framing the problem as an optimization problem and applying saddle-point dynamics, we obtain a control law that rebalances power and asymptotically stabilizes frequency after a disturbance. We generalize previous work to design a controller which only requires partial control coverage over all nodes, yet still achieves secondary frequency control. We verify these results via simulation.
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