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Published May 24, 2023 | public
Journal Article

Hot Carrier Thermalization and Josephson Inductance Thermometry in a Graphene-Based Microwave Circuit


Due to its exceptional electronic and thermal properties, graphene is a key material for bolometry, calorimetry, and photon detection. However, despite graphene's relatively simple electronic structure, the physical processes responsible for the heat transport from the electrons to the lattice are experimentally still elusive. Here, we measure the thermal response of low-disorder graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride by integrating it within a multiterminal superconducting microwave resonator. The device geometry allows us to simultaneously apply Joule heat power to the graphene flake while performing calibrated readout of the electron temperature. We probe the thermalization rates of both electrons and holes with high precision and observe a thermalization scaling exponent not consistent with cooling through the graphene bulk and argue that instead it can be attributed to processes at the graphene – aluminum interface. Our technique provides new insights into the thermalization pathways essential for the next-generation graphene thermal detectors.

Additional Information

© 2023 American Chemical Society. We acknowledge useful discussions with Sophie Li, Matt Matheney, Ewa Rej, and Jonas Zmuidzinas. This work was supported by NSF through the program CAREER DMR-1753306 and Gist-Caltech memorandum of understanding. S.N.-P. also acknowledges the support of the DOE-QIS program (DE-SC0019166), IQIM (NSF-funded physics frontiers center), and the Sloan foundation. M.L.R. acknowledges support from NSF grant NSF-DMR-1806473. The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Additional details

August 22, 2023
December 22, 2023