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Published June 24, 2019 | Supplemental Material + Published
Journal Article Open

Optimization of Bone Scaffold Porosity Distributions


Additive manufacturing (AM) is a rapidly emerging technology that has the potential to produce personalized scaffolds for tissue engineering applications with unprecedented control of structural and functional design. Particularly for bone defect regeneration, the complex coupling of biological mechanisms to the scaffolds' properties has led to a predominantly trial-and-error approach. To mitigate this, shape or topology optimization can be a useful tool to design a scaffold architecture that matches the desired design targets, albeit at high computational cost. Here, we consider an efficient macroscopic optimization routine based on a simple one-dimensional time-dependent model for bone regeneration in the presence of a bioresorbable polymer scaffold. The result of the optimization procedure is a scaffold porosity distribution which maximizes the stiffness of the scaffold and regenerated bone system over the entire regeneration time, so that the propensity for mechanical failure is minimized.

Additional Information

┬ę 2019 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 04 January 2019; Accepted 22 May 2019; Published 24 June 2019. Data Availability: This work does not have any experimental data. The MATLAB-code for scaffold optimization is made available as Supplementary Material. P.D. acknowledges partial support by the German Scholars Organizaton/Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung in the form of the "Wissenschaftler-R├╝cckehrprogramm." The article processing charge was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg in the funding program "Open Access Publishing." Author Contributions: P.D. and P.S.P.P. wrote the manuscript, P.D. developed the MATLAB code. P.S.P.P., D.V., K.B., M.v.G. and P.D. contributed to the modeling and optimization ideas and gave final approval of the manuscript. The authors declare no competing interests.

Attached Files

Published - s41598-019-44872-2.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41598_2019_44872_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41598_2019_44872_MOESM2_ESM.zip


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