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Published September 15, 2020 | Accepted Version + Published
Journal Article Open

Sensitivity and performance of the Advanced LIGO detectors in the third observing run

Buikema, A. ORCID icon
Cahillane, C. ORCID icon
Mansell, G. L.
Blair, C. D. ORCID icon
Abbott, R.
Adams, C.
Adhikari, R. X. ORCID icon
Ananyeva, A.
Appert, S.
Arai, K. ORCID icon
Areeda, J. S.
Asali, Y.
Aston, S. M.
Austin, C.
Baer, A. M.
Ball, M.
Ballmer, S. W.
Banagiri, S.
Barker, D.
Barsotti, L.
Bartlett, J.
Berger, B. K.
Betzwieser, J.
Bhattacharjee, D.
Billingsley, G. ORCID icon
Biscans, S. ORCID icon
Blair, R. M.
Bode, N.
Booker, P.
Bork, R.
Bramley, A.
Brooks, A. F. ORCID icon
Brown, D. D.
Cannon, K. C.
Chen, X.
Ciobanu, A. A.
Clara, F.
Cooper, S. J.
Corley, K. R.
Countryman, S. T.
Covas, P. B.
Coyne, D. C. ORCID icon
Datrier, L. E. H. ORCID icon
Davis, D.
Di Fronzo, C.
Dooley, K. L.
Driggers, J. C.
Dupej, P.
Dwyer, S. E.
Effler, A.
Etzel, T.
Evans, M.
Evans, T. M.
Feicht, J. ORCID icon
Fernandez-Galiana, A.
Fritschel, P.
Frolov, V. V.
Fulda, P.
Fyffe, M.
Giaime, J. A.
Giardina, K. D.
Godwin, P.
Goetz, E.
Gras, S.
Gray, C.
Gray, R.
Green, A. C.
Gustafson, E. K.
Gustafson, R.
Hanks, J.
Hanson, J.
Hardwick, T.
Hasskew, R. K.
Heintze, M. C.
Helmling-Cornell, A. F.
Holland, N. A.
Jones, J. D.
Kandhasamy, S.
Karki, S.
Kasprzack, M. ORCID icon
Kawabe, K.
Kijbunchoo, N.
King, P. J.
Kissel, J. S.
Kumar, Rahul
Landry, M.
Lane, B. B.
Lantz, B.
Laxen, M.
Lecoeuche, Y. K.
Leviton, J.
Liu, J.
Lormand, M.
Lundgren, A. P.
Macas, R.
MacInnis, M.
Macleod, D. M. ORCID icon
Márka, S.
Márka, Z.
Martynov, D. V.
Mason, K.
Massinger, T. J. ORCID icon
Matichard, F. ORCID icon
Mavalvala, N.
McCarthy, R.
McClelland, D. E.
McCormick, S.
McCuller, L. ORCID icon
McIver, J. ORCID icon
McRae, T.
Mendell, G.
Merfeld, K.
Merilh, E. L.
Meylahn, F.
Mistry, T.
Mittleman, R.
Moreno, G.
Mow-Lowry, C. M. ORCID icon
Mozzon, S.
Mullavey, A.
Nelson, T. J. N.
Nguyen, P.
Nuttall, L. K.
Oberling, J.
Oram, Richard J.
O'Reilly, B.
Osthelder, C.
Ottaway, D. J.
Overmier, H.
Palamos, J. R.
Parker, W.
Payne, E.
Pele, A.
Penhorwood, R.
Perez, C. J.
Pirello, M.
Radkins, H.
Ramirez, K. E.
Richardson, J. W. ORCID icon
Riles, K.
Robertson, N. A.
Rollins, J. G. ORCID icon
Romel, C. L.
Romie, J. H.
Ross, M. P.
Ryan, K.
Sadecki, T.
Sanchez, E. J.
Sanchez, L. E. ORCID icon
Saravanan, T. R.
Savage, R. L.
Schaetzl, D.
Schnabel, R.
Schofield, R. M. S.
Schwartz, E.
Sellers, D.
Shaffer, T.
Sigg, D.
Slagmolen, B. J. J.
Smith, J. R.
Soni, S.
Sorazu, B.
Spencer, A. P.
Strain, K. A.
Sun, L. ORCID icon
Szczepańczyk, M. J. ORCID icon
Thomas, M.
Thomas, P.
Thorne, K. A.
Toland, K.
Torrie, C. I.
Traylor, G.
Tse, M.
Urban, A. L.
Vajente, G. ORCID icon
Valdes, G.
Vander-Hyde, D. C.
Veitch, P. J.
Venkateswara, K.
Venugopalan, G. ORCID icon
Viets, A. D.
Vo, T.
Vorvick, C.
Wade, M.
Ward, R. L.
Warner, J.
Weaver, B.
Weiss, R.
Whittle, C.
Willke, B.
Wipf, C. C.
Xiao, L. ORCID icon
Yamamoto, H. ORCID icon
Yu, Hang ORCID icon
Yu, Haocun ORCID icon
Zhang, L. ORCID icon
Zucker, M. E. ORCID icon
Zweizig, J. ORCID icon


On April 1st, 2019, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO), joined by the Advanced Virgo detector, began the third observing run, a year-long dedicated search for gravitational radiation. The LIGO detectors have achieved a higher duty cycle and greater sensitivity to gravitational waves than ever before, with LIGO Hanford achieving angle-averaged sensitivity to binary neutron star coalescences to a distance of 111 Mpc, and LIGO Livingston to 134 Mpc with duty factors of 74.6% and 77.0% respectively. The improvement in sensitivity and stability is a result of several upgrades to the detectors, including doubled intracavity power, the addition of an in-vacuum optical parametric oscillator for squeezed-light injection, replacement of core optics and end reaction masses, and installation of acoustic mode dampers. This paper explores the purposes behind these upgrades, and explains to the best of our knowledge the noise currently limiting the sensitivity of each detector.

Additional Information

© 2020 Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Received 8 August 2020; accepted 14 August 2020; published 11 September 2020. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, and the Max-Planck-Society (MPS) for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors acknowledge the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Fellows program for additional support. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the National Science Foundation, and operates under cooperative Agreement No. PHY-1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under Award No. PHY-0823459. This paper carries LIGO Document Number LIGO-P2000122.

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Published - PhysRevD.102.062003.pdf

Accepted Version - 2008.01301.pdf


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