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Published October 2023 | Published
Journal Article Open

The broad-lined Type-Ic supernova SN 2022xxf and its extraordinary two-humped light curves. I. Signatures of H/He-free interaction in the first four months


We report on our study of the supernova (SN) 2022xxf based on observations obtained during the first four months of its evolution. The light curves (LCs) display two humps of similar maximum brightness separated by 75 days, unprecedented for a broad-lined (BL) Type Ic supernova (SN IcBL). SN 2022xxf is the most nearby SN IcBL to date (in NGC 3705, z = 0.0037, at a distance of about 20 Mpc). Optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy were used to identify the energy source powering the LC. Nearly 50 epochs of high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy were obtained within 130 days, comprising an unparalleled dataset for a SN IcBL, and one of the best-sampled SN datasets to date. The global spectral appearance and evolution of SN 2022xxf points to typical SN Ic/IcBL, with broad features (up to ~14 000 km s−1) and a gradual transition from the photospheric to the nebular phase. However, narrow emission lines (corresponding to ~ 1000–2500 km s−1) are present in the spectra from the time of the second rise, suggesting slower-moving circumstellar material (CSM). These lines are subtle, in comparison to the typical strong narrow lines of CSM-interacting SNe, for example, Type IIn, Ibn, and Icn, but some are readily noticeable at late times, such as in Mg I λ5170 and [O I] λ5577. Unusually, the near-infrared spectra show narrow line peaks in a number of features formed by ions of O and Mg. We infer the presence of CSM that is free of H and He. We propose that the radiative energy from the ejecta-CSM interaction is a plausible explanation for the second LC hump. This interaction scenario is supported by the color evolution, which progresses to blue as the light curve evolves along the second hump, and by the slow second rise and subsequent rapid LC drop. SN 2022xxf may be related to an emerging number of CSM-interacting SNe Ic, which show slow, peculiar LCs, blue colors, and subtle CSM interaction lines. The progenitor stars of these SNe likely experienced an episode of mass loss consisting of H/He-free material shortly prior to explosion.

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© The Authors 2023. 

Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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All the spectral data of comparison objects were obtained from the WISeREP repository (Yaron & Gal-Yam 2012https://www.wiserep.org/), where the data of SN 2022xxf will be published as well. The anonymous referee and Schuyler Van Dyk are thanked for their helpful suggestions on the manuscript. We thank the following for obtaining some of the observations: Takashi Nagao, William Meynardie, Yu-Jing Qin, Shreya Anand, Tomas Ahumada, Jean Somalwar, Kaustav Das, and Miranda Kong. H.K. was funded by the Research Council of Finland projects 324504, 328898, and 353019. K.M. acknowledges support from the JSPS KAKENHI grant nos. JP18H05223, JP20H00174, and JP20H04737. K.M also acknowledges Koichi Itagaki for his private notice on the discovery of SN 2022xxf immediately after the TNS report. M.W.C. is supported by the National Science Foundation with grant nos. PHY-2010970 and OAC-2117997. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. M.G. is supported by the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 101004719. C.A. acknowledges support by NASA grant JWST-GO-02114.032-A and JWST-GO-02122.032-A. M.N. is supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 948381) and by funding from the UK Space Agency. P.L. acknowledges support from the Swedish Research Council. L.G. and T.E.M.B. acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) 10.13039/501100011033, the European Social Fund (ESF) “Investing in your future”, and the European Union Next Generation EU/PRTR funds under the PID2020-115253GA-I00 HOSTFLOWS project, the 2019 Ramón y Cajal program RYC2019-027683-I, the 2021 Juan de la Cierva program FJC2021-047124-I, and from Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) under the PIE project 20215AT016, and the program Unidad de Excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2020-001058-M. S.M. acknowledges support from the Magnus Ehrnrooth Foundation and the Vilho, Yrjö, and Kalle Väisälä Foundation. Y.Z.C. is supported by International Centre of Supernovae, Yunnan Key Laboratory (No. 202302AN360001). P.C. acknowledges support via an Academy of Finland grant (340613; P.I. R. Kotak). Q.F. acknowledges support by JSPS KAKENHI Grant (20J23342). This research was supported by the Munich Institute for Astro-, Particle and BioPhysics (MIAPbP), which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy – EXC-2094 – 390783311. The work is partly supported by the JSPS Open Partnership Bilateral Joint Research Project between Japan and Finland (JPJSBP120229923) and also between Japan and Chile (JPJSBP120209937). This work was supported by grants from VILLUM FONDEN (project number 16599 and 25501). Based in part on observations obtained with the 48-inch Samuel Oschin Telescope and the 60-inch telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant nos. AST-1440341 and AST-2034437 and a collaboration including current partners Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute of Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Trinity College Dublin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IN2P3, University of Warwick, Ruhr University Bochum, Northwestern University, and former partners the University of Washington, Los Alamos National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. 1106171. Based in part on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, owned in collaboration by the University of Turku and Aarhus University, and operated jointly by Aarhus University, the University of Turku and the University of Oslo, representing Denmark, Finland and Norway, the University of Iceland, and Stockholm University at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, under programmes 66-506 (PI: Kankare, Stritzinger, Lundqvist), 64-501 (PI: Sollerman, Goobar), and 62-507 (PI: Angus). The data presented here were obtained in part with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOT. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under the Heising-Simons Foundation grant #12540303 (PI: Graham). The data from the Seimei and Kanata telescopes were obtained under the KASTOR (Kanata And Seimei Transient Observation Regime) project, specifically under the following programs for the Seimei Telescope at the Okayama observatory of Kyoto University (22B-N-CT10, 22B-K-0003, 23A-N-CT10, 23A-K-0006). The Seimei telescope is jointly operated by Kyoto University and the Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), with assistance provided by the Optical and Near-Infrared Astronomy Inter-University Cooperation Program. The authors thank the TriCCS developer team (which has been supported by the JSPS KAKENHI grant nos. JP18H05223, JP20H00174, and JP20H04736, and by NAOJ Joint Development Research). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, as part of ePESSTO+ (the advanced Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey). ePESSTO+ observations were obtained under ESO program IDs 106.216C and 108.220C (PI: Inserra). This work was funded by ANID, Millennium Science Initiative, ICN12_009. The Aarhus supernova group is funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark (IRFD, grant no. 10.46540/2032-00022B).

Data Availability

Photometric and spectroscopic data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr ( or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/678/A209


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February 1, 2024
February 1, 2024