Optimal Charging Schedule for a Battery Switching Station Serving Electric Buses
We propose a model of a battery switching station (BSS) for electric buses (EBs) that captures the predictability of bus operation. We schedule battery charging in the BSS so that every EB arrives to find a battery ready for switching. We develop an efficient algorithm to compute an optimal schedule. It uses dual decomposition to decouple the charging decisions at different charging boxes so that independent subproblems can be solved in parallel at individual charging boxes, making the algorithm inherently scalable as the size of the BSS grows. We propose a direct projection method that solves these subproblems rapidly. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed approach is far more efficient and scalable than generic algorithms and existing solvers.
© 2015 IEEE. Manuscript received January 05, 2015; revised May 21, 2015, August 21, 2015; accepted September 22, 2015. Date of publication October 28, 2015; date of current version August 17, 2016. This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 61371159, the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) under Grant 2012AA041709, and Zhejiang International Collaboration Project under Grant 2013C24008. A preliminary version of this work appeared in Proceedings of European Control Conference 2015.