Dispersal of Wastewater in the Ocean - A Cascade of Processes at Increasing Scales
One of the important uses of the ocean is to receive certain types of wastes from human developments, such as municipal wastewater and sludge, thermal power-plant effluents, mine tailings, and dredge spoils. An effective disposal system is one which must be carefully designed and operated like any other important engineering system. The physical part of the disposal system is the submarine outfall pipe with its associated components -- a multi-port diffuser, a pumping system and/or a drop structure at the beginning of the pipe. Or in case of dumping of sludge or dredge spoils, the physical parts are the ships or barges which carry the wastes to designated offshore locations.