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Published December 29, 2005 | Published
Journal Article Open

Upper limits from the LIGO and TAMA detectors on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts

Abbott, B.
Abbott, R.
Adhikari, Rana X. ORCID icon
Ageev, A.
Agresti, J.
Ajith, P. ORCID icon
Allen, B.
Allen, J.
Amin, R.
Anderson, S. B.
Anderson, W. G.
Araya, M.
Armandula, H.
Ashley, M.
Asiri, F.
Aufmuth, P.
Aulbert, C.
Babak, S.
Balasubramanian, R.
Ballmer, S.
Barish, B. C.
Barker, C.
Barker, D.
Barnes, M.
Barr, B.
Barton, M. A.
Bayer, K.
Beausoleil, R.
Belczynski, K.
Bennett, R.
Berukoff, S. J.
Betzwieser, J.
Bhawal, B.
Bilenko, I. A.
Billingsley, G. ORCID icon
Black, E.
Blackburn, K.
Blackburn, L.
Bland, B.
Bochner, B.
Bogue, L.
Bork, R.
Bose, S. ORCID icon
Brady, P. R. ORCID icon
Braginsky, V. B.
Brau, J. E.
Brown, D. A. ORCID icon
Bullington, A.
Bunkowski, A.
Buonanno, A.
Burgess, R.
Busby, D.
Butler, W. E.
Byer, R. L. ORCID icon
Cadonati, L.
Cagnoli, G.
Camp, J. B.
Cannizzo, J.
Cannon, K.
Cantley, C. A.
Cao, J.
Cardenas, L.
Carter, K.
Casey, M. M.
Castiglione, J.
Chandler, A.
Chapsky, J.
Charlton, P.
Chatterji, S.
Chelkowski, S.
Chen, Y. ORCID icon
Chickarmane, V.
Chin, D.
Christensen, N.
Churches, D.
Cokelaer, T.
Colacino, C.
Coldwell, R.
Coles, M.
Cook, D.
Corbitt, T. ORCID icon
Coyne, D. ORCID icon
Creighton, J. D. E.
Creighton, T. D.
Crooks, D. R. M.
Csatorday, P.
Cusack, B. J.
Cutler, C.
Dalrymple, J.
D'Ambrosio, E.
Danzmann, K.
Davies, G.
Daw, E.
DeBra, D.
Delker, T.
Dergachev, V.
Desai, S.
DeSalvo, R.
Dhurandhar, S.
Di Credico, A.
Diaz, M.
Ding, H.
Drever, R. W. P.
Dupuis, R. J.
Edlund, J. A.
Ehrens, P.
Elliffe, E. J.
Etzel, T.
Evans, M.
Evans, T.
Fairhurst, S.
Fallnich, C.
Farnham, D.
Fejer, M. M. ORCID icon
Findley, T.
Fine, M.
Finn, L. S.
Franzen, K. Y.
Freise, A. ORCID icon
Frey, R.
Fritschel, P.
Frolov, V. V.
Fyffe, M.
Ganezer, K. S.
Garofoli, J.
Giaime, J. A.
Gillespie, A.
Goda, K.
Goggin, L.
González, G.
Goßler, S.
Grandclément, P.
Grant, A.
Gray, C.
Gretarsson, A. M.
Grimmett, D.
Grote, H.
Grunewald, S.
Guenther, M.
Gustafson, E.
Gustafson, R.
Hamilton, W. O.
Hammond, M.
Hanna, C.
Hanson, J.
Hardham, C.
Harms, J. ORCID icon
Harry, G.
Hartunian, A.
Heefner, J.
Hefetz, Y.
Heinzel, G.
Heng, I. S.
Hennessy, M.
Hepler, N.
Heptonstall, A.
Heurs, M.
Hewitson, M.
Hild, S.
Hindman, N.
Hoang, P.
Hough, J.
Hrynevych, M.
Hua, W.
Ito, M.
Itoh, Y.
Ivanov, A.
Jennrich, O.
Johnson, B.
Johnson, W. W.
Johnston, W. R.
Jones, D. I.
Jones, G.
Jones, L.
Jungwirth, D.
Kalogera, V. ORCID icon
Katsavounidis, E.
Kawabe, K.
Kells, W.
Kern, J.
Khan, A.
Killbourn, S.
Killow, C. J.
Kim, C.
King, C.
King, P.
Klimenko, S.
Koranda, S.
Kottter, K.
Kovalik, J.
Kozak, D. ORCID icon
Krishnan, B.
Landry, M.
Langdale, J.
Lantz, B.
Lawrence, R.
Lazzarini, A.
Lei, M.
Leonor, I.
Libbrecht, K. ORCID icon
Libson, A.
Lindquist, P.
Liu, S.
Logan, J.
Lormand, M.
Lubinski, M.
Lück, H.
Luna, M.
Lyons, T. T.
Machenschalk, B.
MacInnis, M.
Mageswaran, M.
Mailand, K.
Majid, W.
Malec, M.
Mandic, V.
Mann, F.
Marin, A.
Márka, S.
Maros, E.
Mason, J.
Mason, K.
Matherny, O.
Matone, L.
Mavalvala, N.
McCarthy, R.
McClelland, D. E.
McHugh, M.
McNabb, J. W. C.
Melissinos, A.
Mendell, G.
Mercer, R. A.
Meshkov, S.
Messaritaki, E.
Messenger, C.
Mikhailov, E.
Mitra, S.
Mitrofanov, V. P.
Mitselmakher, G.
Mittleman, R.
Miyakawa, O.
Mohanty, S.
Moreno, G.
Mossavi, K.
Mueller, G. ORCID icon
Mukherjee, S.
Myers, E.
Myers, J.
Nagano, S.
Nash, T.
Nayak, R.
Newton, G.
Nocera, F.
Noel, J. S.
Nutzman, P.
Olson, T.
O'Reilly, B.
Ottaway, D. J. ORCID icon
Ottewill, A.
Ouimette, D.
Overmier, H.
Owen, B. J.
Pan, Y.
Papa, M. A.
Parameshwaraiah, V.
Parameswariah, C.
Pedraza, M.
Penn, S.
Pitkin, M.
Plissi, M.
Prix, R.
Quetschke, V. ORCID icon
Raab, F.
Radkins, H.
Rahkola, R.
Rakhmanov, M.
Rao, S. R.
Rawlins, K.
Ray-Majumder, S.
Re, V.
Redding, D.
Regehr, M. W.
Regimbau, T.
Reid, S.
Reilly, K. T.
Reithmaier, K.
Reitze, D. H.
Richman, S.
Riesen, R.
Riles, K.
Rivera, B.
Rizzi, A.
Robertson, D. I.
Robertson, N. A.
Robinson, C.
Robison, L.
Roddy, S.
Rodriguez, A.
Rollins, J.
Romano, J. D.
Romie, J.
Rong, H.
Rose, D.
Rotthoff, E.
Rüdiger, A.
Ruet, L.
Russell, P.
Ryan, K.
Salzman, I.
Sandberg, V.
Sanders, G. H.
Sannibale, V.
Sarin, P.
Sathyaprakash, B.
Saulson, P. R.
Savage, R.
Sazonov, A.
Schilling, R.
Schlaufman, K.
Schmidt, V.
Schnabel, R. ORCID icon
Schofield, R.
Schutz, B. F.
Schwinberg, P.
Scott, S. M.
Seader, S. E.
Searle, A. C.
Sears, B.
Seel, S.
Seifert, F.
Sellers, D.
Sengupta, A. S.
Shapiro, C. A.
Shawhan, P.
Shoemaker, D. H.
Shu, Q. Z.
Sibley, A.
Siemens, X.
Sievers, L.
Sigg, D.
Sintes, A. M.
Smith, J. R.
Smith, M. ORCID icon
Smith, M. R.
Sneddon, P. H.
Spero, R.
Spjeld, O.
Stapfer, G.
Steussy, D.
Strain, K. A.
Strom, D.
Stuver, A.
Summerscales, T.
Sumner, M. C.
Sung, M.
Sutton, P. J.
Sylvestre, J.
Tanner, D. B. ORCID icon
Tariq, H.
Tarallo, M.
Taylor, I.
Taylor, R.
Taylor, R.
Thorne, K. A.
Thorne, K. S.
Tibbits, M.
Tilav, S.
Tinto, M. ORCID icon
Tokmakov, K. V.
Torres, C.
Torrie, C.
Traylor, G.
Tyler, W.
Ugolini, D.
Ungarelli, C.
Vallisneri, M. ORCID icon
van Putten, M.
Vass, S.
Vecchio, A. ORCID icon
Veitch, J.
Vorvick, C.
Vyachanin, S. P.
Wallace, L.
Walther, H.
Ward, H.
Ward, R.
Ware, B.
Watts, K.
Webber, D.
Weidner, A.
Weiland, U.
Weiss, R.
Welling, H.
Wen, L.
Wen, S.
Wette, K.
Whelan, J. T.
Whitcomb, S. E.
Whiting, B. F. ORCID icon
Wiley, S.
Wilkinson, C.
Willems, P. A.
Williams, P. R.
Williams, R. ORCID icon
Willke, B.
Wilson, A.
Winjum, B. J.
Winkler, W.
Wise, S.
Wiseman, A. G.
Woan, G.
Woods, D.
Wooley, R.
Worden, J.
Wu, W.
Yakushin, I.
Yamamoto, H.
Yoshida, S.
Zaleski, K. D.
Zanolin, M.
Zawischa, I.
Zhang, L. ORCID icon
Zhu, R.
Zotov, N.
Zucker, M. ORCID icon
Zweizig, J. ORCID icon
Weinstein, Alan J. ORCID icon


We report on the first joint search for gravitational waves by the TAMA and LIGO collaborations. We looked for millisecond-duration unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts in 473 hr of coincident data collected during early 2003. No candidate signals were found. We set an upper limit of 0.12 events per day on the rate of detectable gravitational-wave bursts, at 90% confidence level. From software simulations, we estimate that our detector network was sensitive to bursts with root-sum-square strain amplitude above approximately 1–3×10-19  Hz-1/2 in the frequency band 700-2000 Hz. We describe the details of this collaborative search, with particular emphasis on its advantages and disadvantages compared to searches by LIGO and TAMA separately using the same data. Benefits include a lower background and longer observation time, at some cost in sensitivity and bandwidth. We also demonstrate techniques for performing coincidence searches with a heterogeneous network of detectors with different noise spectra and orientations. These techniques include using coordinated software signal injections to estimate the network sensitivity, and tuning the analysis to maximize the sensitivity and the livetime, subject to constraints on the background.

Additional Information

© 2005 The American Physical Society. Received 8 August 2005; published 29 December 2005. The LIGO scientific collaboration gratefully acknowledges the support of the United States National Science Foundation for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the research by these agencies and by the Australian Research Council, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology of India, the Spanish Ministerio de Educacio´n y Ciencia, the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, the Leverhulme Trust, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Research Corporation, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. TAMA research is supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (415) of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. This document has been assigned LIGO Laboratory document No. LIGO-P040050-08-Z.

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