Nonperturbative analysis of the gravitational waves from a first-order electroweak phase transition
We present the first end-to-end nonperturbative analysis of the gravitational wave power spectrum from a thermal first-order electroweak phase transition (EWPT), using the framework of dimensionally reduced effective field theory and preexisting nonperturbative simulation results. We are able to show that a first-order EWPT in any beyond the Standard Model (BSM) scenario that can be described by a Standard Model-like effective theory at long distances will produce gravitational wave signatures too weak to be observed at existing and planned detectors. This implies that colliders are likely to provide the best chance of exploring the phase structure of such theories, while transitions strong enough to be detected at gravitational wave experiments require either previously neglected higher-dimension operators or light BSM fields to be included in the dimensionally reduced effective theory and therefore necessitate dedicated nonperturbative studies. As a concrete application, we analyze the real singlet-extended Standard Model and identify regions of parameter space with single-step first-order transitions, comparing our findings to those obtained using a fully perturbative method. We discuss the prospects for exploring the electroweak phase diagram in this model at collider and gravitational wave experiments in light of our nonperturbative results.
Additional InformationPublished by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Funded by SCOAP³. (Received 7 October 2019; published 12 December 2019) The authors would like to thank Daniel Cutting, Patrick Draper, Mark Hindmarsh, Stephan Huber, Venus Keus, Mikko Laine, Jonathan Manuel, Jose M. No, Hiren Patel, Kari Rummukainen, Anders Tranberg, and Aleksi Vuorinen for discussions. The work of J. K. was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1719642. M. J. R. M. was supported in part under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-SC0011095. L. N. was supported by Academy of Finland Grant No. 308791 and the Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation. T. T. has been supported by the Vilho, Yrjö, and Kalle Väisälä Foundation, and by the European Research Council Grant No. 725369. In addition, T. T. was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) under Grant No. 200020-168988. D. J. W. was supported by Academy of Finland Grant No. 286769. O. G. and D. J. W. are supported by the Research Funds of the University of Helsinki. The work of J. K., M. J. R. M. and D. J. W. was performed in part at the Aspen Center for Physics, which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. PHY-1607611.
Published - PhysRevD.100.115024.pdf
Submitted - 1903.11604.pdf