Modified Topographic Amplification Factors for a Single Faced Slope due to Kinematic Soil-Structure Interaction
In this paper, we evaluate the additive effects of topography, soil nonlinearity, and soil-structure interaction SSI along the crest of an idealized 40 m high cliff-type topographic feature with slope inclination 300, where excessive damage was observed during the Athens 1999 earthquake. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relative contribution of topographic amplification, and kinematic SSI as a function of the incident motion frequency content and geotechnical site conditions for a surface and an embedded structure located at the cliff crest. For this purpose, we perform elastic parametric and nonlinear site-specific two-dimensional finite element simulations using three profiles and six input motions. We illustrate the role of SSI in altering the response at the location of peak topographic amplification potential behind the crest, the effects of incident motion incoherency on the transient structural response, and the beneficial contribution of structural embedment. We finally suggest that empirical models for base-slab averaging of shallow foundations, developed as a function of site conditions, structural dimensions and center line location, could be combined with topographic amplification factors to predict realistic design spectra for structures located on irregular topographic features.