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Published April 2022 | Supplemental Material + Published
Journal Article Open

Evaluation of the WRF-CMAQ Model Performances on Air Quality in China with the Impacts of the Observation Nudging on Meteorology


Accurate meteorological fields are imperative for correct air quality modeling through their influence on the various chemical species in the atmosphere. In this study, the simulations from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were conducted with meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) using the original and observation nudging approaches to investigate if the better model performances for PM_(2.5), O₃, and their related precursors in China were produced from the latter. Two pollution episodes (one for PM_(2.5) and another for O₃) in 2018 were selected on the basis of the observations at the monitoring supersites in Xianghe and Taizhou cities. The results showed that the Nudging cases had better model performances on all meteorological parameters with higher values of index of agreement (IOA) and lower values of mean bias (MB). It was found that the Nudging case improved model performances for PM_(2.5) and its chemical components at the Xianghe site with lower values of normalized mean bias (NMB) and higher values of correlation coefficient (R) than the base case. The results for the regional PM2.5 over China indicated that the Nudging case reproduced the spatial patterns of mean PM_(2.5) concentrations in the 367 cities with the NMB value of –31%, much better than –42.0% in the base case. During the O₃ pollution episode, the Nudging case improved the model performances for O₃, CO, NO₂, and VOCs with lower NMB values and higher R values than the base case. The results of regional O₃ over China revealed that the Nudging case reproduced the spatial patterns of observed mean O₃ concentrations in the 367 cities very well with the NMB value of 0.97%, much lower than –5.67% in the base case. The results of this study have great implications for better simulations of meteorology and air quality.

Additional Information

© 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited. Received: January 16, 2022; Revised: February 16, 2022; Accepted: March 10, 2022. This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 42175084, 21577126, 41561144004), Department of Science and Technology of China (No. 2018YFC0213506 and 2018YFC0213503), and National Research Program for Key Issues in Air Pollution Control in China (No. DQGG0107). Pengfei Li is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 22006030), Initiation Fund for Introducing Talents of Hebei Agricultural University (412201904), and Hebei Youth Top Fund (BJ2020032).

Attached Files

Published - aaqr-22-01-oa-0023.pdf

Supplemental Material - aaqr-22-01-oa-0023_suppl.pdf


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August 22, 2023
October 24, 2023