G12 Requirement for Thrombin-stimulated Gene Expression and DNA Synthesis in 1321N1 Astrocytoma Cells
Thrombin stimulation of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells leads to Ras-dependent AP-1-mediated transcriptional activation and to DNA replication. In contrast to what has been observed in most cell systems, in 1321N1 cells these responses are pertussis toxin-insensitive. The pertussis toxin-insensitive G-protein G12 has been implicated in cell growth and transformation in different cell systems. We have examined the potential role of this protein in AP-1-mediated transcriptional activation and DNA synthesis in 1321N1 cells. Transient expression of an activated (GTPase-deficient) mutant of Gα12 increased AP-1-dependent gene expression. This response was inhibited by co-expression of a dominant negative Ala-15 Ras protein. To determine whether the pertussis toxin-insensitive G12 protein is involved in the thrombin-stimulated DNA synthesis, an inhibitory antibody against the C-terminal sequence of Gα12 subunit was microinjected into 1321N1 cells. Microinjection of the anti-Gα12 resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of thrombin-stimulated DNA synthesis. In contrast, microinjection of nonimmune IgG or an antibody directed against the C terminus of Gα(o) did not reduce the mitogenic response to thrombin. Furthermore, microinjection of the anti-Gα12 antibody had no effect on fibroblast growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis. These results demonstrate a specific role for Gα12 in the mitogenic response to thrombin in human astroglial cells.