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Published November 20, 2014 | Submitted + Published
Journal Article Open

A Far-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Intermediate Redshift (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies


We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L_(IR) > 10^(11.5) L_☉). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ~ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L_(CII)/L_(FIR) ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L_(CII) –L_(FIR) relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L_(CII)/L_(FIR) ratio and the far-IR color L_0/L_(100) observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L_(CII)/L_(FIR) at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L_(CII)/L_(FIR) ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L_(IR)/L'_(CO) or L_(IR/M_(H_2), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ~ 0.3.

Additional Information

© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 June 18; accepted 2014 September 16; published 2014 November 5. We warmly thank the referee for constructive comments and suggestions. G.E.M. and D.R. acknowledge support from STFC through grant ST/K00106X/1. G.E.M. acknowledges support from the John Fell Oxford University Press (OUP) Research Fund and the University of Oxford. A.A.-H. acknowledges funding through the Universidad de Cantabria August G. Linares Programme. This work includes observations made with IRAM, which is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the APEX Observatory under programme ID 090.B-0708A and 091.B-0312A. This paper uses data from Herschel's photometer SPIRE. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including: University of Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, University of Colorado (USA).

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Published - 0004-637X_796_1_63.pdf

Submitted - 1409.5605v1.pdf


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