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Published November 19, 2014 | Published + Submitted
Journal Article Open

The Physics of the B Factories


"The Physics of the B Factories" describes a decade long effort of physicists in the quest for the precise determination of asymmetry — broken symmetry — between particles and anti-particles. We now recognize that the matter we see around us is the residue — one part in a billion — of the matter and antimatter that existed in the early universe, most of which annihilated into the cosmic background radiation that bathes us. But the question remains: how did the baryonic matter-antimatter asymmetry arise? This book describes the work done by some 1000 physicists and engineers from around the globe on two experimental facilities built to test our understanding of this phenomenon, one at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California, USA, and a second at the KEK Laboratory, Tsukuba, Japan, and what we have learned from them in broadening our understanding of nature.

Additional Information

© 2014 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. Funded by SCOAP3 / License Version CC BY 4.0. Received: 29 July 2014; Accepted: 29 July 2014; Published online: 19 November 2014. The preparation of this book has been directly supported by the US Department of Energy, MEXT (Japan), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada), and Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France). Individuals have been supported by the Royal Society (UK). The authors of this book wish to thank the KEK and SLAC laboratories for their support with regard to preparation of this manuscript, and in particular providing meeting and computing facilities to aid preparation of this manuscript. In addition we wish to thank the following institutes who have hosted meetings of the book collaboration and general editors: Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Mainz; Iowa State University; LAAP; University of Siegen; University of Ljubljana; Queen Mary, University of London, and the University of Melbourne. We would also like to thank the reprographics department at Queen Mary, University of London for their contribution in preparation of the artwork for the cover page of this book. Adrian Bevan and Soeren Prell would specifically like to thank Patricia Burchat, Francois Le Diberder, and A.J. Stewart Smith for their counsel as members of the BABAR advisory committee on preparations for this book and J. Michael Roney and David B. MacFarlane for their support as BABAR spokesperson and SLAC director of particle physics and astrophysics during the writing of the book. Boštjan Golob and Bruce Yabsley would specifically like to thank Tom Browder, Hisaki Hayashii, Toru Iijima, Leo Piilonen, Yoshihide Sakai and Masanori Yamauchi for their support of the project in the role of Belle spokespersons. We would also like to thank Nittsia Harrison, Donna Hernandez, Chihiro Imai, Homer Neal, and Shinobu Oishi, for their local support for meetings, Homer Neal and Charlotte Hee for computing support at SLAC and in particular Sarodia Vydelingum for her many efforts with regard to organizing meetings, websites and travel arrangements during this project. The BABAR and Belle authors are grateful for the tremendous support they have received from their home institutions during the operation of the B Factories. The BABAR Collaboration is grateful for the extraordinary contributions of their PEP-II colleagues in achieving the excellent luminosity and machine conditions that have made this work possible. The success of this project also relies critically on the expertise and dedication of the computing organizations that support BABAR. The collaborating institutions wish to thank SLAC for its support and the kind hospitality extended to them. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy and National Science Foundation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada), the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany), the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy), the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (The Netherlands), the Research Council of Norway, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spain), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), and the Binational Science Foundation (U.S.-Israel). Individuals have received support from the Marie-Curie IEF program (European Union) and the A. P. Sloan Foundation (USA). The Belle Collaboration wishes to thank the KEKB group for the excellent operation of the accelerator; the KEK cryogenics group for the efficient operation of the solenoid; and the KEK computer group, the National Institute of Informatics, and the PNNL/EMSL computing group for valuable computing and SINET4 network support. We acknowledge support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), and the Tau-Lepton Physics Research Center of Nagoya University; the Australian Research Council and the Australian Department of Industry, Innovation, Science and Research; Austrian Science Fund under Grant No. P 22742-N16; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Contracts No. 10575109, No. 10775142, No. 10825524, No. 10875115, No. 10935008 and No. 11175187; the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under Contract No. LG14034; the Carl Zeiss Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Volkswagen- Stiftung; the Department of Science and Technology of India; the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Italy; the WCU program of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, National Research Foundation of Korea Grants No. 2011-0029457, No. 2012-0008143, No. 2012R1A1A2008330, No. 2013R1A1A3007772; the BRL program under NRF Grant No. KRF-2011-0020333, No. KRF-2011-0021196, Center for Korean J-PARC Users, No. NRF-2013K1A3A7A06056592; the BK21 Plus program and the GSDC of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information; the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and the National Science Center; the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Federal Agency for Atomic Energy; the Slovenian Research Agency; the Basque Foundation for Science (IKERBASQUE) and the UPV/EHU under program UFI 11/55; the Swiss National Science Foundation; the National Science Council and the Ministry of Education of Taiwan; and the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid from MEXT for Science Research in a Priority Area ("New Development of Flavor Physics") and from JSPS for Creative Scientific Research ("Evolution of Tau-lepton Physics").

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