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Published October 21, 2023 | Accepted
Journal Article Open

Single-test evaluation of directional elastic properties of anisotropic structured materials


When the elastic properties of structured materials become direction-dependent, the number of their descriptors increases. For example, in two-dimensions, the anisotropic behavior of materials is described by up to 6 independent elastic stiffness parameters, as opposed to only 2 needed for isotropic materials. Such high number of parameters expands the design space of structured materials and leads to unusual phenomena, such as materials that can shear under uniaxial compression. However, an increased number of properties descriptors and the coupling between shear and normal deformations render the experimental evaluation of material properties more challenging. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the virtual fields method to identify six separate stiffness tensor parameters of two-dimensional anisotropic structured materials using just one tension test, thus eliminating the need for multiple experiments, as it is typical in traditional methods. The approach requires no stress data and uses full-field displacement data and global force data. We show the accuracy of our method using synthetic data generated from finite element simulations as well as experimental data from additively manufactured specimens.

Copyright and License

© 2023 Elsevier.


We would like to thank Prof. Fabrice Pierron (University of Southampton) for helpful discussions on the VFM and the DIC methods; Pierre Margerit (École Polytechnique) for helpful discussion on DIC; and Jihoon Ahn (Caltech) and Perry Samimy (Caltech) for their help in designing the experiments. C.D. and J.B. acknowledge support from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), grant number 1835735. M.F. and L.D.L. acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) , project number 200021_204316.


Jagannadh Boddapati: Conceptualization, Investigation, Software, Formal analysis, Writing – original draft. Moritz Flaschel: Conceptualization, Investigation, Software, Formal analysis, Writing – original draft. Siddhant Kumar: Conceptualization, Writing – review & editing. Laura De Lorenzis: Conceptualization, Writing – review & editing. Chiara Daraio: Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing, Supervision, Funding acquisition.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


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Additional details

October 24, 2023
October 24, 2023