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Published October 2022 | v2
Journal Article Open

Stem-cell-based human and mouse embryo models

  • 1. ROR icon California Institute of Technology


Synthetic embryology aims to develop embryo-like structures from stem cells to provide new insight into early stages of mammalian development. Recent advances in synthetic embryology have highlighted the remarkable capacity of stem cells to self-organize under certain biochemical or biophysical stimulations, generating structures that recapitulate the fate and form of early mouse/human embryos, in which symmetry breaking, pattern formation, or proper morphogenesis can be observed spontaneously. Here we review recent progress on the design principles for different types of embryoids and discuss the impact of different biochemical and biophysical factors on the process of stem-cell self-organization. We also offer our thoughts about the principal future challenges.

Additional Information

The authors would like to acknowledge grants from the Wellcome Trust (207415/Z/17/Z), the European Research Council (ERC) advanced grant (669198), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 (HD100456-01A1) grant, the NIH Pioneer Award (DP1 HD104575-01), Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience, and Shurl and Kay Curci Foundation to M.ZG. M.B. is supported by the postdoctoral fellowship at Caltech.


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November 30, 2023
January 9, 2024