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Published January 29, 2007 | Published
Journal Article Open

Imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation variations in single vessels in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy


Photoacoustic microscopy was used to noninvasively image variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO_2) in the subcutaneous microvasculature of rats in vivo. In phantom tests, the calculated concentration fractions of red ink in double-ink mixtures matched the actual values with a 1% error. In ex vivo studies, the calculated SO_2 in bovine blood agreed with the standard spectrophotometric measurements within a 4% systematic difference. In in vivo studies, arteries and veins were separated based on the measured SO_2 values and variations in SO_2 between different physiological states (hyperoxia, normoxia, and hypoxia) were imaged in single blood vessels.

Additional Information

© 2007 American Institute of Physics. Received 4 April 2006; accepted 21 December 2006; published online 29 January 2007. The authors thank O. Craciun, G. Ku, and G. Lungu for experimental assistance. This work was sponsored by National Institutes of Health Grant Nos. R01 EB000712 and R01 NS46214.

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