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Published August 13, 2019 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Dynamic beam steering with all-dielectric electro-optic III-V multiple-quantum-well metasurfaces


Tunable metasurfaces enable dynamical control of the key constitutive properties of light at a subwavelength scale. To date, electrically tunable metasurfaces at near-infrared wavelengths have been realized using free carrier modulation, and switching of thermo-optical, liquid crystal and phase change media. However, the highest performance and lowest loss discrete optoelectronic modulators exploit the electro-optic effect in multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. Here, we report an all-dielectric active metasurface based on electro-optically tunable III–V multiple-quantum-wells patterned into subwavelength elements that each supports a hybrid Mie-guided mode resonance. The quantum-confined Stark effect actively modulates this volumetric hybrid resonance, and we observe a relative reflectance modulation of 270% and a phase shift from 0° to ~70°. Additionally, we demonstrate beam steering by applying an electrical bias to each element to actively change the metasurface period, an approach that can also realize tunable metalenses, active polarizers, and flat spatial light modulators.

Additional Information

© 2019 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 16 February 2019; Accepted 15 July 2019; Published 13 August 2019. This work was supported by Samsung Electronics (P.C.W.), and NASA Early Stage Innovations (ESI) Grant 80NSSC19K0213 (H.A.A. & G.K.S.). The authors used facilities supported by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI). P.C.W. acknowledges the support from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (Grant numbers: 108-2112-M-006-021-MY3; 107-2923-M-001-010-MY3; 107-2923-M-006-004-MY3). P.C.W. also acknowledges the support in part by Higher Education Sprout Project, Ministry of Education to the Headquarters of University Advancement at National Cheng Kung University (NCKU). The authors deeply appreciate help in the form of the close reading of the manuscript and review responses by Rebecca Glaudell, Phil Jahelka, Kelly Mauser, Michael Kelzenberg, Joseph DuChene, and Haley Bauser. The authors also thank Artur Davoyan for useful discussions. Data availability: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the authors on reasonable request; see author contributions for specific data sets. Author Contributions: P.C.W, R.A.P., and H.A.A. conceived the original idea. P.C.W. performed the numerical design, device fabrication, built up the optical setup, and performed the optical as well as high-speed measurements, analyzed numerical and experimental data, and wrote the paper; R.A.P. performed the numerical design, developed the dry etching process, and helped with the build-up of optical setup for measurement; G.K.S. helped with the sample fabrication, designed and build-up the PCB for individually electrical control of metasurface elements; W.-H.C. helped with the sample fabrication, data analysis, and optical measurement; R.S. developed the theoretical model for MQWs, performed calculations, and wrote the paper; M.G. helped with the high-speed measurement and data analysis; M.A. and D.L. helped with discussions; H.A.A. organized the project, designed experiments, analyzed the results, and prepare the papers. All authors discussed the results and commented on the paper. The authors declare no competing interests.

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Published - s41467-019-11598-8.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_11598_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Supplemental Material - 41467_2019_11598_MOESM2_ESM.pdf


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August 19, 2023
October 18, 2023