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Published February 20, 2019 | Submitted + Published
Journal Article Open

Resolved Young Binary Systems and Their Disks


We have conducted a survey of young single and multiple systems in the Taurus–Auriga star-forming region with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), substantially improving both the spatial resolution and sensitivity with which individual protoplanetary disks in these systems have been observed. These ALMA observations can resolve binary separations as small as 25–30 au and have an average 3σ detection level of 0.35 mJy, equivalent to a disk mass of 4 × 10^(−5) M⊙ for an M3 star. Our sample was constructed from stars that have an infrared excess and/or signs of accretion and have been classified as Class II. For the binary and higher-order multiple systems observed, we detect λ = 1.3 mm continuum emission from one or more stars in all of our target systems. Combined with previous surveys of Taurus, our 21 new detections increase the fraction of millimeter-detected disks to over 75% in all categories of stars (singles, primaries, and companions) earlier than spectral type M6 in the Class II sample. Given the wealth of other information available for these stars, this has allowed us to study the impact of multiplicity with a much larger sample. While millimeter flux and disk mass are related to stellar mass as seen in previous studies, we find that both primary and secondary stars in binary systems with separations of 30–4200 au have lower values of millimeter flux as a function of stellar mass than single stars. We also find that for these systems, the circumstellar disk around the primary star does not dominate the total disk mass in the system and contains on average 62% of the total mass.

Additional Information

© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 September 7; revised 2018 December 20; accepted 2019 January 7; published 2019 February 20. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00392.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. J.M.C. acknowledges support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. 15XRP15_20140 issued through the Exoplanets Research Program. We thank Adam Kraus, Lisa Prato, and Gail Schaefer for helpful discussions, and Kim Ward-Duong and Jenny Patience for sharing their results before publication. We thank K. Luhman for communicating results in advance of publication. This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (The Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018); matplotlib, a Python library for publication quality graphics (Hunter 2007); NASA's Astrophysics Data System; and the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Facility: ALMA. -

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Published - Akeson_2019_ApJ_872_158.pdf

Submitted - 1901.05029.pdf


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August 19, 2023
October 20, 2023