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Published December 23, 2009 | public
Journal Article

New Light on Molecular and Materials Complexity: 4D Electron Imaging


In this Perspective, 4D electron imaging is highlighted, after introducing some concepts, with an overview of selected applications that span chemical reactions, molecular interfaces, phase transitions, and nano(micro)mechanical systems. With the added dimension of time in microscopy, diffraction, and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, the focus is on direct visualization of structural dynamics with atomic and nanoscale resolution in the four dimensions of space and time. This contribution provides an expose of emerging developments and an outlook on future applications in materials and biological sciences.

Additional Information

© 2009 American Chemical Society. Received September 2, 2009. Publication Date (Web): November 30, 2009. This research was carried out with the support from the National Science Foundation and Air Force Office of Scientific Research at the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology (UST) established at Caltech by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. We express our sincere gratitude to members of our laboratories, past and present, who contributed significantly to the research discussed here in UED, UEC and UEM; the names of those involved in the work reported here are given in the References section. This article builds on earlier reviews(13c, 45) and, together with a recent monograph,(9) it provides an overview of the progress made so far.

Additional details

August 19, 2023
October 19, 2023