Welcome to the new version of CaltechAUTHORS. Login is currently restricted to library staff. If you notice any issues, please email coda@library.caltech.edu
Published January 21, 2021 | Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Surface Charge Density in Electrical Double Layer Capacitors with Nanoscale Cathode–Anode Separation


Using a dynamic density functional theory, we study the charging dynamics, the final equilibrium structure, and the energy storage in an electrical double layer capacitor with nanoscale cathode–anode separation in a slit geometry. We derive a simple expression for the surface charge density that naturally separates the effects of the charge polarization due to the ions from those due to the polarization of the dielectric medium and allows a more intuitive understanding of how the ion distribution within the cell affects the surface charge density. We find that charge neutrality in the half-cell does not hold during the dynamic charging process for any cathode–anode separation, and also does not hold at the final equilibrium state for small separations. Therefore, the charge accumulation in the half-cell in general does not equal the surface charge density. The relationships between the surface charge density and the charge accumulation within the half-cell are systematically investigated by tuning the electrolyte concentration, cathode–anode separation, and applied voltage. For high electrolyte concentrations, we observe charge inversion at which the charge accumulation exceeds the surface charge at special values of the separation. In addition, we find that the energy density has a maximum at intermediate electrolyte concentrations for a high applied voltage.

Additional Information

© 2021 American Chemical Society. Received 14 October 2020. Revised 17 December 2020. Published online 6 January 2021. Published as part of The Journal of Physical Chemistry virtual special issue "Carol K. Hall Festschrift". L.Q. is grateful to the China Scholarship Council for supporting her visit at the California Institute of Technology. The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Attached Files

Supplemental Material - jp0c09332_si_001.pdf


Files (2.4 MB)
Name Size Download all
2.4 MB Preview Download

Additional details

August 20, 2023
October 23, 2023