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Published October 1, 1976 | public
Journal Article

The "Soil" of Mars (Viking 1)


The location of the Viking 1 lander is most ideal for the study of soil properties because it has one footpad in soft material and one on hard material. As each soil sample was acquired, information on soil properties was obtained. Although analysis is still under way, early results on bulk density, particle size, angle of internal friction, cohesion, adhesion, and penetration resistance of the soil of Mars are presented.

Additional Information

© 1976 American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2 September 1976. We acknowledge the continued aid and support given to the physical properties team by the surface sampler team. The lander imaging team kindly furnished the images used in this report. The wind velocity and direction were kindly provided by the meteorology team. The help of Drs. H. Zimmer and G. Neukum during the acquisition of data is appreciated. We also thank I. M. Mack for her assistance as the physical properties intern during the month of August. We thank Dr. E. C. Morris for his continuing assistance during the Viking I mission and for review of the manuscript. We also thank A. Castro and V. Gillespie for their additional support. We acknowledge the help and assistance of S. Dwornik, particularly at the beginning of the project when the physical properties investigation first started. Supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Additional details

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October 25, 2023