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Published December 17, 2019 | Submitted
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The US Program in Ground-Based Gravitational Wave Science: Contribution from the LIGO Laboratory

Reitze, David ORCID icon
Abbott, Richard ORCID icon
Adams, Carl
Adhikari, Rana ORCID icon
Aggarwal, Nancy
Anand, Shreya ORCID icon
Ananyeva, Alena
Anderson, Stuart
Appert, Stephen
Arai, Koji ORCID icon
Araya, Melody ORCID icon
Aston, Stuart
Barayoga, Juan
Barish, Barry C. ORCID icon
Barker, David
Barsotti, Lisa ORCID icon
Bartlett, Jeffrey
Betzwieser, Joseph
Billingsley, Garilynn ORCID icon
Biscans, Sebastien ORCID icon
Biscoveanu, Sylvia ORCID icon
Blackburn, Kent ORCID icon
Blair, Carl ORCID icon
Blair, Ryan
Bockelman, Brian
Bork, Rolf
Bramley, Alyssa
Brooks, Aidan ORCID icon
Brunett, Sharon
Buikema, Aaron
Cahillane, Craig ORCID icon
Callister, Thomas ORCID icon
Carruthers, Tom
Clara, Filiberto
Corban, Paul
Coughlin, Michael ORCID icon
Couvares, Peter
Cowart, Matthew
Coyne, Dennis ORCID icon
Demos, Nicholas
Donovan, Fred
Driggers, Jenne
Dwyer, Sheila ORCID icon
Effler, Anamaria
Eisenstein, Robert
Etzel, Todd
Evans, Matthew ORCID icon
Evans, Thomas ORCID icon
Feicht, Jon
Fernández-Galiana, Álvaro ORCID icon
Fritschel, Peter ORCID icon
Frolov, Valery
Fyffe, Michael
Gateley, Bubba
Giaime, Joe
Giardina, Dwayne
Goetz, Evan ORCID icon
Gossan, Sarah ORCID icon
Gras, Slawomir
Grassia, Philippe
Gray, Corey
Gupta, Anchal ORCID icon
Gustafson, Eric
Guthman, Les
Hall, Evan ORCID icon
Hanks, Jonathan
Hanson, Joe
Hasskew, Raine
Haster, Carl-Johan ORCID icon
Heintze, Matthew
Hernandez, Edgar
Holt, Kathy
Huang, Yiwen ORCID icon
Huynh-Dinh, Tien
Isi, Maximiliano ORCID icon
Jones, Jeff
Kamai, Brittany ORCID icon
Kanner, Jonah ORCID icon
Kasprzack, Marie ORCID icon
Katsavounidis, Erik
Katzman, William
Kawabe, Keita
King, Peter
Kissel, Jeffrey ORCID icon
Kondrashov, Veronica
Korth, William ORCID icon
Kozak, Dan
Kumar, Rahul
Landry, Michael ORCID icon
Lane, Benjamin
Lanza, Robert
Laxen, Michael
Lazzarini, Albert
Lecoeuche, Yannick ORCID icon
Libbrecht, Ken ORCID icon
Lo, Ka-Lok
London, Lionel
Lormand, Marc
MacInnis, Myron ORCID icon
Mansell, Georgia ORCID icon
Markowitz, Aaron ORCID icon
Maros, Ed
Marx, Jay
Mason, Ken
Massinger, Thomas ORCID icon
Matichard, Fabrice ORCID icon
Mavalvala, Nergis
McCarthy, Richard
McCormick, Scott
McCuller, Lee ORCID icon
McIver, Jessica ORCID icon
Mendell, Gregory
Merilh, Edmond
Meshkov, Sydney
Mittleman, Richard
Moraru, Dan
Moreno, Gerardo
Mullavey, Adam
Nelson, Timothy
Ng, Kwan-Yeung
Noh, Minkyun ORCID icon
O'Reilly, Brian
Oberling, Jason
Oram, Richard J.
Osthelder, Charles
Overmier, Harry
Parker, William
Pedraza, Mike
Pele, Arnaud ORCID icon
Perez, Carlos
Petterson, Danielle
Pirello, Marc
Raab, Fred
Radkins, Hugh
Mohapatra, Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar
Richardson, Jonathan ORCID icon
Robertson, Norna A.
Rollins, Jameson ORCID icon
Romel, Chandra
Romie, Janeen
Ryan, Kyle
Sadecki, Travis
Sanchez, Eduardo J.
Sanchez, Luis
Savage, Richard L. ORCID icon
Schaetzl, Dean
Sellers, Danny
Shaffer, Thomas
Shoemaker, David ORCID icon
Sigg, Daniel
Strunk, Amber
Sudhir, Vivishek
Sun, Ling ORCID icon
Tao, Duo
Taylor, Robert
Thomas, Michael
Thomas, Patrick
Thorne, Keith
Torrie, Calum
Traylor, Gary
Trudeau, R.
Tse, Maggie
Vajente, Gabriele ORCID icon
Vass, Steve
Venugopalan, Gautam ORCID icon
Vitale, Salvatore ORCID icon
Vorvick, Cheryl
Wade, Andrew
Wallace, Larry
Warner, Jim
Weaver, Betsy
Weinstein, Alan ORCID icon
Weiss, Rainer
Whitcomb, Stan
Whittle, Chris ORCID icon
Willis, Joshua
Wipf, Christopher
Xiao, Sophia ORCID icon
Yamamoto, Hiroaki ORCID icon
Yu, Hang ORCID icon
Yu, Haocun ORCID icon
Zhang, Liyuan ORCID icon
Zucker, Michael ORCID icon
Zweizig, John ORCID icon
LIGO Scientific Collaboration


Recent gravitational-wave observations from the LIGO and Virgo observatories have brought a sense of great excitement to scientists and citizens the world over. Since September 2015,10 binary black hole coalescences and one binary neutron star coalescence have been observed. They have provided remarkable, revolutionary insight into the "gravitational Universe" and have greatly extended the field of multi-messenger astronomy. At present, Advanced LIGO can see binary black hole coalescences out to redshift 0.6 and binary neutron star coalescences to redshift 0.05. This probes only a very small fraction of the volume of the observable Universe. However, current technologies can be extended to construct "3rd Generation" (3G) gravitational-wave observatories that would extend our reach to the very edge of the observable Universe. The event rates over such a large volume would be in the hundreds of thousands per year (i.e. tens per hour). Such 3G detectors would have a 10-fold improvement in strain sensitivity over the current generation of instruments, yielding signal-to-noise ratios of 1000 for events like those already seen. Several concepts are being studied for which engineering studies and reliable cost estimates will be developed in the next 5 years.

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