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Published November 1997 | public
Journal Article

Relaxation in shape-memory alloys—Part I. Mechanical model


A variety of relaxation phenomena such as the stabilization of martensite, rubber-like behavior, evolving hysteresis loops and stabilization of interfaces have been observed in various shape-memory alloys. These effects adversely impact technological applications. Despite a great deal of experimental evidence, there is no consensus on the mechanism. However, there is universal agreement on certain fundamental aspects of these phenomena. Based on these areas of agreement, we propose a phenomenological, but predictive, model in this paper. This model is based on the framework of thermoelasticity augmented with an internal variable. In this part, we discuss the basic mechanical model and show that it reproduces the experimental observations remarkably well. In Part II of this paper, we extend this model to include thermal effects and use these models to propose new experiments in order to clarify longstanding issues.

Additional Information

© 1997 Acta Metallurgica Inc. Received 12 November 1996; accepted 27 March 1997. We gratefully acknowledge many useful and colorful discussions with David Lieberman. Part of this work was conducted when KB and PJS held post-doctoral positions at the Courant Institute. This work was partially supported through grants from the AFOSR (KB, PJS:90-0090 at Courant, KB:F49620-95-1-0109 at Caltech, RDJ:91-0301), ARO(KB:DAAL03-92-G-0011 at Courant, PJS:DAAH04-95-1-0100 at Courant), DOE (PJS:W-7405-ENG-36 and KC-07-01-01), NSF(RDJ: DMS-9505077, PJS:DMS-9402763 at Courant), and ONR (KB:N00014-93-1-0240 at Caltech, RDJ:N/N00014-95-1-1145 and 91-J-4304).

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