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Published April 1, 2014 | Published
Journal Article Open

Fully motorized optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy


We have developed fully motorized optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), which integrates five complementary scanning modes and simultaneously provides a high imaging speed and a wide field of view (FOV) with 2.6 μm lateral resolution. With one-dimensional (1D) motion-mode mechanical scanning, we measured the blood flow through a cross section of a blood vessel in vivo. With two-dimensional (2D) optical scanning at a laser repetition rate of 40 kHz, we achieved a 2 kHz B-scan rate over a range of 50 μm with 20 A-lines and 50 Hz volumetric-scan rate over a FOV of 50  μm×50  μm with 400 A-lines, which enabled real-time tracking of cellular dynamics in vivo. With synchronized 1D optical and 2D mechanical hybrid scanning, we imaged a 10  mm×8  mm FOV within three minutes, which is 20 times faster than the conventional mechanical scan in our second-generation OR-PAM. With three-dimensional mechanical contour scanning, we maintained the optimal signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution of OR-PAM while imaging objects with uneven surfaces, which is essential for quantitative studies.

Additional Information

© 2014 Optical Society of America. Received December 11, 2013; accepted February 8, 2014; posted March 3, 2014 (Doc. ID 202913); published March 28, 2014. The authors appreciate professor James Ballard's close reading of the manuscript and thank Jinyang Liang, Chiye Li, and Yong Zhou for helpful discussions and experimental assistance. This work was sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA159959, and R01 CA134539. L.V. Wang has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics Inc., and Endra Inc., which, however, did not support this work. K. I. Maslov has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics Inc.

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