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Published June 1994 | Published
Book Section - Chapter Open

Electronic marking and identification techniques to discourage document copying


Modern computer networks make it possible to distribute documents quickly and economically by electronic means rather than by conventional paper means. However, the widespread adoption of electronic distribution of copyrighted material is currently impeded by the ease of illicit copying and dissemination. In this paper we propose techniques that discourage illicit distribution by embedding each document with a unique codeword. Our encoding techniques are indiscernible by readers, yet enable us to identify the sanctioned recipient of a document by examination of a recovered document. We propose three coding methods, describe one in detail, and present experimental results showing that our identification techniques are highly reliable, even after documents have been photocopied.

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© Copyright 1994 IEEE. Reprinted with permission. Publication Date: 12-16 June 1994.

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Published - BRAinfocom94.pdf


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September 14, 2023
September 14, 2023