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Published June 2016 | Accepted Version + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Building a Science of Individual Differences from fMRI


To date, fMRI research has been concerned primarily with evincing generic principles of brain function through averaging data from multiple subjects. Given rapid developments in both hardware and analysis tools, the field is now poised to study fMRI-derived measures in individual subjects, and to relate these to psychological traits or genetic variations. We discuss issues of validity, reliability and statistical assessment that arise when the focus shifts to individual subjects and that are applicable also to other imaging modalities. We emphasize that individual assessment of neural function with fMRI presents specific challenges and necessitates careful consideration of anatomical and vascular between-subject variability as well as sources of within-subject variability.

Additional Information

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Available online 30 April 2016. This work was funded in part by a NARSAD grant from the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (to J.D.) and a Conte Center from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (to R.A.). The authors thank Rebecca Schwarzlose, Michael Miller, Alex Huth, Swaroop Guntupalli and two anonymous reviewers for useful comments on the manuscript.

Attached Files

Accepted Version - nihms776431.pdf

Supplemental Material - mmc1.docx


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August 22, 2023
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