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Published August 2009 | Published + Accepted Version
Journal Article Open

A 3-D High-Frequency Array Based 16 Channel Photoacoustic Microscopy System for In Vivo Micro-Vascular Imaging


This paper discusses the design of a novel photoacoustic microscopy imaging system with promise for studying the structure of tissue microvasculature for applications in visualizing angiogenesis. A new 16 channel analog and digital high-frequency array based photoacoustic microscopy system (PAM) was developed using an Nd: YLF pumped tunable dye laser, a 30 MHz piezo composite linear array transducer, and a custom multichannel receiver electronics system. Using offline delay and sum beam- forming and beamsteering, phantom images were obtained from a 6 µm carbon fiber in water at a depth of 8 mm. The measured -6 dB lateral and axial spatial resolution of the system was 100 ± 5 µm and 45 ± 5 µm, respectively. The dynamic focusing capability of the system was demonstrated by imaging a composite carbon fiber matrix through a 12.5 mm imaging depth. Next, 2-D in vivo images were formed of vessels around 100 µm in diameter in the human hand. Three-dimensional in vivo images were also formed of micro-vessels 3 mm below the surface of the skin in two Sprague Dawley rats.

Additional Information

© 2009 IEEE. Manuscript received April 01, 2008; revised September 25, 2008. First published January 06, 2009; current version published July 29, 2009. This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Health under Grant R01 EB000712 and Grant P41-EB2182. The authors would like to thank J. M. Cannata for his work in the design and fabrication of the high-frequency transducer array.

Attached Files

Published - 04738385.pdf

Accepted Version - nihms130224.pdf


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August 20, 2023
October 20, 2023