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Published October 2019 | public
Journal Article

Clinical neuroprosthetics: Today and tomorrow


Implantable neurostimulation devices provide a direct therapeutic link to the nervous system and can be considered brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Under this definition, BCI are not simply science fiction, they are part of existing neurosurgical practice. Clinical BCI are standard of care for historically difficult to treat neurological disorders. These systems target the central and peripheral nervous system and include Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Responsive Neurostimulation, and Deep Brain Stimulation. Recent advances in clinical BCI have focused on creating "closed-loop" systems. These systems rely on biomarker feedback and promise individualized therapy with optimal stimulation delivery and minimal side effects. Success of clinical BCI has paralleled research efforts to create BCI that restore upper extremity motor and sensory function to patients. Efforts to develop closed loop motor/sensory BCI is linked to the successes of today's clinical BCI.

Additional Information

© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. Received 16 February 2019, Accepted 16 July 2019, Available online 30 July 2019.

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August 19, 2023
October 18, 2023