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Published January 2023 | Published
Journal Article Open

Population of Merging Compact Binaries Inferred Using Gravitational Waves through GWTC-3

Abbott, R. ORCID icon
Abbott, T. D.
Acernese, F.
Ackley, K.
Adams, C.
Adhikari, N.
Adhikari, R. X. ORCID icon
Adya, V. B.
Affeldt, C.
Agarwal, D.
Agathos, M.
Agatsuma, K.
Aggarwal, N.
Aguiar, O. D.
Aiello, L.
Ain, A.
Ajith, P.
Akutsu, T.
de Alarcón, P. F.
Akcay, S.
Albanesi, S.
Allocca, A.
Altin, P. A.
Amato, A.
Anand, C.
Anand, S. ORCID icon
Ananyeva, A.
Anderson, S. B. ORCID icon
Anderson, W. G.
Ando, M.
Andrade, T.
Andres, N.
Andrić, T.
Angelova, S. V.
Ansoldi, S.
Antelis, J. M.
Antier, S.
Antonini, F.
Appert, S.
Arai, Koji ORCID icon
Arai, Koya
Arai, Y.
Araki, S.
Araya, A. ORCID icon
Araya, M. C. ORCID icon
Areeda, J. S.
Arène, M.
Aritomi, N.
Arnaud, N.
Arogeti, M.
Aronson, S. M.
Arun, K. G.
Asada, H.
Asali, Y.
Ashton, G.
Aso, Y.
Assiduo, M.
Aston, S. M.
Astone, P.
Aubin, F.
Austin, C.
Babak, S.
Badaracco, F. ORCID icon
Bader, M. K. M.
Badger, C.
Bae, S.
Bae, Y.
Baer, A. M.
Bagnasco, S.
Bai, Y. ORCID icon
Baiotti, L.
Baird, J.
Bajpai, R.
Ball, M.
Ballardin, G.
Ballmer, S. W.
Balsamo, A.
Baltus, G.
Banagiri, S.
Bankar, D.
Barayoga, J. C.
Barbieri, C.
Barish, B. C. ORCID icon
Barker, D.
Barneo, P.
Barone, F.
Barr, B.
Barsotti, L.
Barsuglia, M.
Barta, D.
Bartlett, J.
Barton, M. A.
Bartos, I.
Bassiri, R.
Basti, A.
Bawaj, M.
Bayley, J. C.
Baylor, A. C.
Bazzan, M.
Bécsy, B.
Bedakihale, V. M.
Bejger, M.
Belahcene, I.
Benedetto, V.
Beniwal, D.
Bennett, T. F.
Bentley, J. D.
BenYaala, M.
Bergamin, F.
Berger, B. K.
Bernuzzi, S.
Berry, C. P. L. ORCID icon
Bersanetti, D.
Bertolini, A.
Betzwieser, J.
Beveridge, D.
Bhandare, R.
Bhardwaj, U.
Bhattacharjee, D.
Bhaumik, S.
Bilenko, I. A.
Billingsley, G. ORCID icon
Bini, S.
Birney, R.
Birnholtz, O.
Biscans, S. ORCID icon
Bischi, M.
Biscoveanu, S. ORCID icon
Bisht, A.
Biswas, B.
Bitossi, M.
Bizouard, M.-A. ORCID icon
Blackburn, J. K. ORCID icon
Blair, C. D.
Blair, D. G.
Blair, R. M.
Bobba, F.
Bode, N.
Boer, M.
Bogaert, G.
Boldrini, M.
Bonavena, L. D.
Bondu, F.
Bonilla, E.
Bonnand, R.
Booker, P.
Boom, B. A.
Bork, R.
Boschi, V.
Bose, N.
Bose, S.
Bossilkov, V.
Boudart, V.
Bouffanais, Y.
Bozzi, A.
Bradaschia, C.
Brady, P. R.
Bramley, A.
Branch, A.
Branchesi, M.
Brandt, J.
Brau, J. E.
Breschi, M.
Briant, T.
Briggs, J. H.
Brillet, A.
Brinkmann, M.
Brockill, P.
Brooks, A. F. ORCID icon
Brooks, J.
Brown, D. D.
Brunett, S.
Bruno, G.
Bruntz, R.
Bryant, J.
Bulik, T.
Bulten, H. J.
Buonanno, A.
Buscicchio, R.
Buskulic, D.
Buy, C.
Byer, R. L.
Cadonati, L.
Cagnoli, G.
Cahillane, C.
Calderón Bustillo, J. ORCID icon
Callaghan, J. D.
Callister, T. A. ORCID icon
Calloni, E.
Cameron, J.
Camp, J. B.
Canepa, M.
Canevarolo, S.
Cannavacciuolo, M.
Cannon, K. C.
Cao, H.
Cao, Z.
Capocasa, E.
Capote, E.
Carapella, G.
Carbognani, F.
Carlin, J. B.
Carney, M. F.
Carpinelli, M.
Carrillo, G.
Carullo, G.
Carver, T. L.
Casanueva Diaz, J.
Casentini, C.
Castaldi, G.
Caudill, S.
Cavaglià, M.
Cavalier, F.
Cavalieri, R.
Ceasar, M.
Cella, G.
Cerdá-Durán, P.
Cesarini, E.
Chaibi, W.
Chakravarti, K.
Chalathadka Subrahmanya, S. ORCID icon
Champion, E.
Chan, C.-H.
Chan, C.
Chan, C. L.
Chan, K.
Chan, M.
Chandra, K.
Chanial, P.
Chao, S.
Chapman-Bird, C. E. A.
Charlton, P.
Chase, E. A.
Chassande-Mottin, E.
Chatterjee, C.
Chatterjee, Debarati
Chatterjee, Deep
Chaturvedi, M.
Chaty, S.
Chatziioannou, K. ORCID icon
Chen, C.
Chen, H. Y.
Chen, J.
Chen, K.
Chen, X.
Chen, Y.-B. ORCID icon
Chen, Y.-R.
Chen, Z.
Cheng, H.
Cheong, C. K.
Cheung, H. Y.
Chia, H. Y.
Chiadini, F.
Chiang, C-Y.
Chiarini, G.
Chierici, R.
Chincarini, A.
Chiofalo, M. L.
Chiummo, A.
Cho, G.
Cho, H. S.
Choudhary, R. K.
Choudhary, S.
Christensen, N.
Chu, H.
Chu, Q.
Chu, Y-K.
Chua, S.
Chung, K. W.
Ciani, G.
Ciecielag, P.
Cieślar, M. ORCID icon
Cifaldi, M.
Ciobanu, A. A. ORCID icon
Ciolfi, R.
Cipriano, F.
Cirone, A.
Clara, F.
Clark, E. N.
Clark, J. A. ORCID icon
Clarke, L.
Clearwater, P. ORCID icon
Clesse, S.
Cleva, F.
Coccia, E.
Codazzo, E.
Cohadon, P.-F.
Cohen, D. E.
Cohen, L.
Colleoni, M.
Collette, C. G.
Colombo, A.
Colpi, M.
Compton, C. M.
Constancio, M.
Conti, L.
Cooper, S. J.
Corban, P.
Corbitt, T. R.
Cordero-Carrión, I. ORCID icon
Corezzi, S.
Corley, K. R.
Cornish, N.
Corre, D.
Corsi, A.
Cortese, S.
Costa, C. A.
Cotesta, R.
Coughlin, M. W. ORCID icon
Coulon, J.-P.
Countryman, S. T. ORCID icon
Cousins, B.
Couvares, P. ORCID icon
Coward, D. M.
Cowart, M. J.
Coyne, D. C. ORCID icon
Coyne, R.
Creighton, J. D. E. ORCID icon
Creighton, T. D.
Criswell, A. W.
Croquette, M.
Crowder, S. G.
Cudell, J. R.
Cullen, T. J.
Cumming, A.
Cummings, R.
Cunningham, L.
Cuoco, E.
Curyło, M.
Dabadie, P.
Dal Canton, T. ORCID icon
Dall'Osso, S. ORCID icon
Dálya, G.
Dana, A.
DaneshgaranBajastani, L. M.
D'Angelo, B.
Danila, B.
Danilishin, S.
D'Antonio, S.
Danzmann, K.
Darsow-Fromm, C.
Dasgupta, A.
Datrier, L. E. H. ORCID icon
Datta, S.
Dattilo, V.
Dave, I.
Davier, M.
Davies, G. S.
Davis, D. ORCID icon
Davis, M. C.
Daw, E. J.
Dean, R.
DeBra, D.
Deenadayalan, M.
Degallaix, J. ORCID icon
De Laurentis, M. ORCID icon
Deléglise, S. ORCID icon
Del Favero, V. ORCID icon
De Lillo, F. ORCID icon
De Lillo, N. ORCID icon
Del Pozzo, W. ORCID icon
DeMarchi, L. M. ORCID icon
De Matteis, F. ORCID icon
D'Emilio, V.
Demos, N.
Dent, T.
Depasse, A. ORCID icon
De Pietri, R. ORCID icon
De Rosa, R. ORCID icon
De Rossi, C.
DeSalvo, R. ORCID icon
De Simone, R. ORCID icon
Dhurandhar, S.
Díaz, M. C.
Diaz-Ortiz, M.
Didio, N. A.
Dietrich, T.
Di Fiore, L.
Di Fronzo, C.
Di Giorgio, C. ORCID icon
Di Giovanni, F. ORCID icon
Di Giovanni, M.
Di Girolamo, T. ORCID icon
Di Lieto, A. ORCID icon
Ding, B.
Di Pace, S. ORCID icon
Di Palma, I. ORCID icon
Di Renzo, F. ORCID icon
Divakarla, A. K.
Dmitriev, A.
Doctor, Z.
D'Onofrio, L.
Donovan, F.
Dooley, K. L.
Doravari, S.
Dorrington, I.
Drago, M.
Driggers, J. C. ORCID icon
Drori, Y. ORCID icon
Ducoin, J.-G.
Dupej, P.
Durante, O.
D'Urso, D.
Duverne, P.-A.
Dwyer, S. E.
Eassa, C.
Easter, P. J.
Ebersold, M.
Eckhardt, T.
Eddolls, G.
Edelman, B.
Edo, T. B. ORCID icon
Edy, O.
Effler, A. ORCID icon
Eguchi, S. ORCID icon
Eichholz, J. ORCID icon
Eikenberry, S. S. ORCID icon
Eisenmann, M.
Eisenstein, R. A.
Ejlli, A.
Engelby, E.
Enomoto, Y.
Errico, L.
Essick, R. C.
Estellés, H.
Estevez, D.
Etienne, Z.
Etzel, T.
Evans, M.
Evans, T. M.
Ewing, B. E.
Fafone, V.
Fair, H.
Fairhurst, S.
Farah, A. M.
Farinon, S.
Farr, B.
Farr, W. M.
Farrow, N. W.
Fauchon-Jones, E. J. ORCID icon
Favaro, G.
Favata, M.
Fays, M.
Fazio, M.
Feicht, J. ORCID icon
Fejer, M. M. ORCID icon
Fenyvesi, E.
Ferguson, D. L.
Fernandez-Galiana, A. ORCID icon
Ferrante, I.
Ferreira, T. A.
Fidecaro, F.
Figura, P.
Fiori, I.
Fishbach, M.
Fisher, R. P.
Fittipaldi, R.
Fiumara, V.
Flaminio, R. ORCID icon
Floden, E.
Fong, H.
Font, J. A.
Fornal, B.
Forsyth, P. W. F.
Franke, A.
Frasca, S.
Frasconi, F.
Frederick, C.
Freed, J. P.
Frei, Z.
Freise, A.
Frey, R.
Fritschel, P.
Frolov, V. V.
Fronzé, G. G.
Fujii, Y.
Fujikawa, Y.
Fukunaga, M.
Fukushima, M.
Fulda, P.
Fyffe, M.
Gabbard, H. A.
Gadre, B. U.
Gair, J. R.
Gais, J.
Galaudage, S.
Gamba, R.
Ganapathy, D.
Ganguly, A.
Gao, D.
Gaonkar, S. G.
Garaventa, B.
García, F.
García-Núñez, C.
García-Quirós, C.
Garufi, F.
Gateley, B.
Gaudio, S.
Gayathri, V.
Ge, G.-G.
Gemme, G.
Gennai, A.
George, J.
George, R. N.
Gerberding, O.
Gergely, L.
Gewecke, P.
Ghonge, S.
Ghosh, Abhirup
Ghosh, Archisman
Ghosh, Shaon
Ghosh, Shrobana
Giacomazzo, B.
Giacoppo, L.
Giaime, J. A.
Giardina, K. D.
Gibson, D. R.
Gier, C.
Giesler, M.
Giri, P.
Gissi, F.
Glanzer, J.
Gleckl, A. E.
Godwin, P.
Golomb, J. ORCID icon
Goetz, E.
Goetz, R.
Gohlke, N.
Goncharov, B.
González, G.
Gopakumar, A.
Gosselin, M.
Gouaty, R.
Gould, D. W.
Grace, B.
Grado, A.
Granata, M.
Granata, V.
Grant, A.
Gras, S.
Grassia, P.
Gray, C.
Gray, R.
Greco, G.
Green, A. C.
Green, R.
Gretarsson, A. M.
Gretarsson, E. M.
Griffith, D. ORCID icon
Griffiths, W.
Griggs, H. L.
Grignani, G.
Grimaldi, A.
Grimm, S. J.
Grote, H.
Grunewald, S.
Gruning, P.
Guerra, D.
Guidi, G. M.
Guimaraes, A. R.
Guixé, G.
Gulati, H. K.
Guo, H.-K.
Guo, Y.
Gupta, Anchal ORCID icon
Gupta, Anuradha
Gupta, P.
Gustafson, E. K.
Gustafson, R.
Guzman, F.
Ha, S.
Haegel, L.
Hagiwara, A.
Haino, S.
Halim, O.
Hall, E. D.
Hamilton, E. Z.
Hammond, G.
Han, W.-B.
Haney, M.
Hanks, J.
Hanna, C.
Hannam, M. D.
Hannuksela, O.
Hansen, H.
Hansen, T. J.
Hanson, J.
Harder, T.
Hardwick, T.
Haris, K.
Harms, J.
Harry, G. M.
Harry, I. W.
Hartwig, D.
Hasegawa, K.
Haskell, B.
Hasskew, R. K.
Haster, C.-J.
Hattori, K.
Haughian, K.
Hayakawa, H.
Hayama, K.
Hayes, F. J.
Healy, J.
Heidmann, A.
Heidt, A.
Heintze, M. C.
Heinze, J.
Heinzel, J.
Heitmann, H.
Hellman, F.
Hello, P.
Helmling-Cornell, A. F. ORCID icon
Hemming, G.
Hendry, M.
Heng, I. S.
Hennes, E.
Hennig, J.
Hennig, M. H.
Hernandez, A. G.
Hernandez Vivanco, F. ORCID icon
Heurs, M.
Hild, S.
Hill, P.
Himemoto, Y.
Hines, A. S.
Hiranuma, Y.
Hirata, N.
Hirose, E.
Hochheim, S.
Hofman, D.
Hohmann, J. N.
Holcomb, D. G.
Holland, N. A.
Hollows, I. J.
Holmes, Z. J.
Holt, K.
Holz, D. E.
Hong, Z.
Hopkins, P.
Hough, J.
Hourihane, S. ORCID icon
Howell, E. J.
Hoy, C. G.
Hoyland, D.
Hreibi, A.
Hsieh, B.-H.
Hsu, Y.
Huang, G.-Z.
Huang, H-Y.
Huang, P.
Huang, Y-C.
Huang, Y.-J.
Huang, Y.
Hübner, M. T.
Huddart, A. D.
Hughey, B.
Hui, D. C. Y.
Hui, V.
Husa, S.
Huttner, S. H.
Huxford, R.
Huynh-Dinh, T.
Ide, S.
Idzkowski, B.
Iess, A.
Ikenoue, B.
Imam, S.
Inayoshi, K.
Ingram, C.
Inoue, Y.
Ioka, K.
Isi, M.
Isleif, K.
Ito, K.
Itoh, Y.
Iyer, B. R.
Izumi, K.
JaberianHamedan, V. ORCID icon
Jacqmin, T.
Jadhav, S. J.
Jadhav, S. P.
James, A. L.
Jan, A. Z.
Jani, K.
Janquart, J.
Janssens, K.
Janthalur, N. N.
Jaranowski, P.
Jariwala, D.
Jaume, R.
Jenkins, A. C.
Jenner, K.
Jeon, C.
Jeunon, M.
Jia, W.
Jin, H.-B.
Johns, G. R.
Jones, A. W.
Jones, D. I.
Jones, J. D.
Jones, P.
Jones, R.
Jonker, R. J. G.
Ju, L.
Jung, P.
Jung, k.
Junker, J.
Juste, V.
Kaihotsu, K.
Kajita, T.
Kakizaki, M.
Kalaghatgi, C. V.
Kalogera, V. ORCID icon
Kamai, B. ORCID icon
Kamiizumi, M.
Kanda, N.
Kandhasamy, S.
Kang, G.
Kanner, J. B. ORCID icon
Kao, Y.
Kapadia, S. J.
Kapasi, D. P.
Karat, S.
Karathanasis, C.
Karki, S.
Kashyap, R.
Kasprzack, M. ORCID icon
Kastaun, W.
Katsanevas, S.
Katsavounidis, E.
Katzman, W.
Kaur, T.
Kawabe, K.
Kawaguchi, K.
Kawai, N.
Kawasaki, T.
Kéfélian, F.
Keitel, D.
Key, J. S.
Khadka, S.
Khalili, F. Y.
Khan, S.
Khazanov, E. A.
Khetan, N.
Khursheed, M.
Kijbunchoo, N. ORCID icon
Kim, C.
Kim, J. C.
Kim, J.
Kim, K.
Kim, W. S.
Kim, Y.-M.
Kimball, C.
Kimura, N.
Kinley-Hanlon, M. ORCID icon
Kirchhoff, R.
Kissel, J. S.
Kita, N.
Kitazawa, H.
Kleybolte, L.
Klimenko, S.
Knee, A. M.
Knowles, T. D.
Knyazev, E.
Koch, P.
Koekoek, G.
Kojima, Y.
Kokeyama, K.
Koley, S.
Kolitsidou, P.
Kolstein, M.
Komori, K.
Kondrashov, V.
Kong, A. K. H. ORCID icon
Kontos, A.
Koper, N.
Korobko, M.
Kotake, K.
Kovalam, M.
Kozak, D. B. ORCID icon
Kozakai, C.
Kozu, R.
Kringel, V.
Krishnendu, N. V.
Królak, A.
Kuehn, G.
Kuei, F.
Kuijer, P.
Kulkarni, S.
Kumar, A.
Kumar, P.
Kumar, Rahul
Kumar, Rakesh
Kume, J.
Kuns, K.
Kuo, C.
Kuo, H.-S.
Kuromiya, Y.
Kuroyanagi, S.
Kusayanagi, K.
Kuwahara, S.
Kwak, K.
Lagabbe, P.
Laghi, D.
Lalande, E.
Lam, T. L.
Lamberts, A.
Landry, M.
Landry, P.
Lane, B. B.
Lang, R. N.
Lange, J.
Lantz, B.
La Rosa, I.
Lartaux-Vollard, A. ORCID icon
Lasky, P. D.
Laxen, M.
Lazzarini, A. ORCID icon
Lazzaro, C.
Leaci, P.
Leavey, S.
Lecoeuche, Y. K. ORCID icon
Lee, H. K.
Lee, H. M.
Lee, H. W.
Lee, J.
Lee, K.
Lee, R.
Lehmann, J.
Lemaître, A.
Leonardi, M.
Leroy, N.
Letendre, N.
Levesque, C.
Levin, Y.
Leviton, J. N.
Leyde, K.
Li, A. K. Y. ORCID icon
Li, B.
Li, J.
Li, K. L.
Li, T. G. F. ORCID icon
Li, X. ORCID icon
Lin, C.-Y. ORCID icon
Lin, F.-K. ORCID icon
Lin, F.-L. ORCID icon
Lin, H. L.
Lin, L. C.-C. ORCID icon
Linde, F.
Linker, S. D.
Linley, J. N.
Littenberg, T. B.
Liu, G. C.
Liu, J.
Liu, K.
Liu, X.
Llamas, F.
Llorens-Monteagudo, M. ORCID icon
Lo, R. K. L. ORCID icon
Lockwood, A.
Loh, M.
London, L. T.
Longo, A.
Lopez, D.
Lopez Portilla, M.
Lorenzini, M.
Loriette, V.
Lormand, M.
Losurdo, G.
Lott, T. P.
Lough, J. D.
Lousto, C. O.
Lovelace, G.
Lucaccioni, J. F.
Lück, H.
Lumaca, D.
Lundgren, A. P.
Luo, L.-W.
Lynam, J. E.
Macas, R.
MacInnis, M.
Macleod, D. M. ORCID icon
MacMillan, I. A. O. ORCID icon
Macquet, A. ORCID icon
Magaña Hernandez, I. ORCID icon
Magazzù, C. ORCID icon
Magee, R. M. ORCID icon
Maggiore, R. ORCID icon
Magnozzi, M. ORCID icon
Mahesh, S.
Majorana, E. ORCID icon
Makarem, C. ORCID icon
Maksimovic, I.
Maliakal, S.
Malik, A.
Man, N.
Mandic, V.
Mangano, V.
Mango, J. L.
Mansell, G. L.
Manske, M.
Mantovani, M.
Mapelli, M.
Marchesoni, F.
Marchio, M.
Marion, F.
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LIGO Scientific Collaboration
Virgo Collaboration
KAGRA Collaboration

Abstract

We report on the population properties of compact binary mergers inferred from gravitational-wave observations of these systems during the first three LIGO-Virgo observing runs. The Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog 3 (GWTC-3) contains signals consistent with three classes of binary mergers: binary black hole, binary neutron star, and neutron star–black hole mergers. We infer the binary neutron star merger rate to be between 10 and 1700 Gpc⁻³ yr⁻¹ and the neutron star–black hole merger rate to be between 7.8 and 140 Gpc⁻³ yr⁻¹, assuming a constant rate density in the comoving frame and taking the union of 90% credible intervals for methods used in this work. We infer the binary black hole merger rate, allowing for evolution with redshift, to be between 17.9 and 44 Gpc⁻³ yr⁻¹ at a fiducial redshift (z = 0.2). The rate of binary black hole mergers is observed to increase with redshift at a rate proportional to (1 + z)_κ with κ = 2.9⁺¹⋅⁷₋₁.₈ for z ≲ 1. Using both binary neutron star and neutron star–black hole binaries, we obtain a broad, relatively flat neutron star mass distribution extending from 1.2⁺⁰⋅¹₋₀.₂ to 2.0⁺⁰⋅³₋₀.₃ M_⊙. We confidently determine that the merger rate as a function of mass sharply declines after the expected maximum neutron star mass, but cannot yet confirm or rule out the existence of a lower mass gap between neutron stars and black holes. We also find the binary black hole mass distribution has localized over- and underdensities relative to a power-law distribution, with peaks emerging at chirp masses of 8.3⁺⁰⋅³₋₀.₅ and 27.9⁺¹⋅⁹₋₁.₈ M_⊙. While we continue to find that the mass distribution of a binary's more massive component strongly decreases as a function of primary mass, we observe no evidence of a strongly suppressed merger rate above approximately 60 M_⊙, which would indicate the presence of a upper mass gap. Observed black hole spins are small, with half of spin magnitudes below χᵢ ≈ 0.25. While the majority of spins are preferentially aligned with the orbital angular momentum, we infer evidence of antialigned spins among the binary population. We observe an increase in spin magnitude for systems with more unequal-mass ratio. We also observe evidence of misalignment of spins relative to the orbital angular momentum.

Additional Information

Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. This material is based upon work supported by NSF's LIGO Laboratory which is a major facility fully funded by the National Science Foundation. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society, and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board, India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación and Ministerio de Universidades, the Conselleria de Fons Europeus, Universitat i Cultura and the Direcció General de Política Universitaria i Recerca del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d'Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland and the European Union—European Regional Development Fund; Foundation for Polish Science, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Social Funds, the European Regional Development Funds, the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, the French Lyon Institute of Origins, the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique, Actions de Recherche Concertées and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen, Belgium, the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary, the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research, the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, the United States Department of Energy, and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN, and CNRS for provision of computational resources. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leading-Edge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research, Grant No. 26000005, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905, Grants No. JP17H06358, No. JP17H06361, and No. JP17H06364, JSPS Core-to-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), Grants No. 17H06133 and No. 20H05639, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A) 20A203, Grant No. JP20H05854, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center and the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan under grants including Grant No. AS-CDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center of NAOJ, Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK.

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