GALEX Detection of Shock Breakout in Type IIP Supernova PS1-13arp: Implications for the Progenitor Star Wind
We present the GALEX detection of a UV burst at the time of explosion of an optically normal supernova (SN) IIP (PS1-13arp) from the Pan-STARRS1 survey at z = 0.1665. The temperature and luminosity of the UV burst match the theoretical predictions for shock breakout in a red supergiant (RSG), but with a duration a factor of ~50 longer than expected. We compare the NUV light curve of PS1-13arp to previous GALEX detections of SNe IIP and find clear distinctions that indicate that the UV emission is powered by shock breakout, and not by the subsequent cooling envelope emission previously detected in these systems. We interpret the ~1 day duration of the UV signal with a shock breakout in the wind of an RSG with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of ~ 10^(-3) M_☉ yr^(−1). This mass-loss rate is enough to prolong the duration of the shock breakout signal, but not enough to produce an excess in the optical plateau light curve or narrow emission lines powered by circumstellar interaction. This detection of non-standard, potentially episodic high mass loss in an RSG SN progenitor has favorable consequences for the prospects of future wide-field UV surveys to detect shock breakout directly in these systems, and provide a sensitive probe of the pre-explosion conditions of SN progenitors.
© 2015 American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 January 26; accepted 2015 February 23; published 2015 April 27. S.G. thanks the Gemini Deputy Director for approving a change of program for the TOO program GN-2013A-Q-32 to observe PS1-13arp. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).
Published - 0004-637X_804_1_28.pdf
Submitted - 1502.06964v1.pdf