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Published August 21, 2023 | Published
Journal Article Embargoed

Experimental evidence of amplitude-dependent surface wave dispersion via nonlinear contact resonances

  • 1. ROR icon California Institute of Technology


In this Letter, we provide an experimental demonstration of amplitude-dependent dispersion tuning of surface acoustic waves interacting with nonlinear resonators. Leveraging the similarity between the dispersion properties of plate edge waves and surface waves propagating in a semi-infinite medium, we use a setup consisting of a plate with a periodic arrangement of bead-magnet resonators along one of its edges. Nonlinear contact between the ferromagnetic beads and magnets is exploited to realize nonlinear local resonance effects. First, we experimentally demonstrate the nonlinear softening nature and amplitude-dependent dynamics of a single bead-magnet resonator on both rigid and compliant substrates. Next, the dispersion properties of the system in the linear regime are investigated. Finally, we demonstrate how the interplay of nonlinear local resonances with plate edge waves gives rise to amplitude-dependent dispersion properties. The findings will inform the design of more versatile surface acoustic wave devices that can passively adapt to loading conditions.

Copyright and License

© 2023 Author(s). Published under an exclusive license by AIP Publishing.


We thank Professor Alexander Vakakis and fellow researchers Alireza Mojahed, Joaqin Garcia-Suarez, and Danilo Kusanovic for the stimulating discussions. This research has been supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant No. EFRI-1741565), the National Science Foundation Career (Award No. 1753249), and the Graduate College Dissertation Completion Fellowship Award provided by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Additional Information

Special Collection: Fundamentals and Applications of Metamaterials: Breaking the Limits


Setare Hajarolasvadi: Conceptualization (equal); Investigation (lead); Visualization (equal); Writing – original draft (equal). Paolo Celli: Conceptualization (equal); Supervision (equal); Visualization (equal); Writing – original draft (equal). Brian L. Kim: Investigation (supporting). Ahmed Elbanna: Funding acquisition (equal); Supervision (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal). Chiara Daraio: Conceptualization (equal); Funding acquisition (equal); Supervision (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal).

Data Availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts to disclose.



The files will be made publicly available on August 21, 2024.

Additional details

October 26, 2023
October 26, 2023