In vivo photoacoustic flowmetry in the optical diffusive regime based on saline injection
We propose a saline-injection-based method to quantify blood flow velocity in vivo with acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography. By monitoring the saline-blood-interface propagating in the blood vessel, we can resolve the flow velocity. In phantom experiments, a root-mean-squared error of prediction of 0.29 mm/s was achieved. By injecting saline into a mouse tail vein covered with 1 mm chicken tissue, we showed that the flow velocity in the tail vein could be measured at depth, which is especially pertinent to monitoring blood flow velocity in patients undergoing intravenous infusion.
Additional Information© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. The authors would like to thank Prof. James Ballard for manuscript editing. This work was sponsored in part by National Institutes of Health grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director's Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director's Transformative Research Award), R01 EB016963, S10 RR026922, and R01 CA159959. L.W. has a financial interest in Microphotoacoustics, Inc. and Endra, Inc., which, however, did not support this work.
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