Scale Invariant Jets: From Blazars to Microquasars
Black holes, anywhere in the stellar-mass to supermassive range, are often associated with relativistic jets. Models suggest that jet production may be a universal process common in all black hole systems regardless of their mass. Although in many cases observations support such hypotheses for microquasars and Seyfert galaxies, little is known regarding whether boosted blazar jets also comply with such universal scaling laws. We use uniquely rich multi-wavelength radio light curves from the F-GAMMA program and the most accurate Doppler factors available to date to probe blazar jets in their emission rest frame with unprecedented accuracy. We identify for the first time a strong correlation between the blazar intrinsic broadband radio luminosity and black hole mass, which extends over ~9 orders of magnitude down to microquasar scales. Our results reveal the presence of a universal scaling law that bridges the observing and emission rest frames in beamed sources and allows us to effectively constrain jet models. They consequently provide an independent method for estimating the Doppler factor and for predicting expected radio luminosities of boosted jets operating in systems of intermediate or tens of solar mass black holes, which are immediately applicable to cases such as those recently observed by LIGO.
Additional Information© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 July 19; revised 2017 November 5; accepted 2017 November 7; published 2017 December 21. The authors would like to thank Andreas Zezas and the anonymous referee for comments and suggestions that helped improve this work. This research was supported by the "Aristeia" Action of the "Operational Program Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and Greek National Resources, and by the European Commission Seventh Framework Program (FP7) through grants PCIG10-GA-2011-304001 "JetPop" and PIRSES-GA-2012-31578 "EuroCal." Our study is based on observations carried out with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) and the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). I.N., I.M., and V.K. were supported for this research through a stipend from the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne.
Published - Liodakis_2017_ApJ_851_144.pdf
Submitted - 1711.03979.pdf