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Published March 2005 | Published
Journal Article Open

Response of idealized Hadley circulations to seasonally varying heating


[1] The response of Hadley circulations to displacements of the latitude of maximum heating is investigated in idealized axisymmetric and eddy-permitting models. Consistent with an earlier study and with theory for the nearly inviscid limit (Lindzen and Hou, 1988), the strength of the Hadley circulation is sensitive to displacements of heating: the winter cell strengthens and summer cell weakens when the maximum heating is displaced off the equator. However, in conflict with the nearly inviscid limit but consistent with observations of Earth's atmosphere, the strength of an annually averaged Hadley circulation is comparable to the Hadley circulation driven by an annually averaged heating. The disagreement between these results and the nearly inviscid limit is ascribed to vertical diffusion of momentum and dry static energy in the axisymmetric model and to baroclinic eddy fluxes in the eddy-permitting model. Nonlinear amplification of the annually averaged Hadley circulation is only seen near the upper boundary in simulations with a rigid lid near the tropopause, suggesting that the amplification is an artifact of the upper boundary condition.

Additional Information

© 2005 American Geophysical Union. Received 23 December 2004; revised 17 February 2005; accepted 1 March 2005; published 30 March 2005. [28] We thank Paul O'Gorman for helpful discussions; the Davidow Research Fund for financial support; and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation, for providing computing time used in this research.

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August 22, 2023
August 22, 2023