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Published February 15, 2002 | public
Journal Article

Measurement of Emissions from Air Pollution Sources. 4. C_1−C_(27) Organic Compounds from Cooking with Seed Oils


The emission rates of gas-phase, semivolatile, and particle-phase organic compounds ranging in carbon number from C_1 to C_(27) were measured from institutional-scale food cooking operations that employ seed oils. Two cooking methods and three types of seed oils were examined:  vegetables stir-fried in soybean oil, vegetables stir-fried in canola oil, and potatoes deep fried in hydrogenated soybean oil. The emission rates of 99 organic compounds were quantified, and these include n-alkanes, branched alkanes, alkenes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, carbonyls, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and lactones. Carbonyls and fatty acids (n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids) make up a significant portion of the organic compounds emitted from all three seed oil cooking procedures. The compositional differences in the organic compound emissions between the different cooking operations are consistent with the differences in the organic composition of the various cooking oils used. The distribution of the n-alkanoic acids between the gas and particle phases was found to be in good agreement with gas/particle partitioning theory. The relative importance of emissions from commercial deep frying operations to the total emissions of C_(16) and C_(18) n-alkanoic acids in the Los Angeles urban area was estimated using the available information and is estimated to account for approximately 7% of the total primary emissions of these acids. Additional emissions of these n-alkanoic acids from stir-frying and grill frying operations are expected. Estimates also indicate that seed oil cooking may make up a significant fraction of the emissions of lighter n-alkanoic acids such as nonanoic acid.

Additional Information

© 2002 American Chemical Society. Received for review December 29, 2000. Revised manuscript received October 18, 2001. Accepted October 24, 2001. We thank Lee Reavis, Debbie Walker, and Chef Jorge Amador (Total Food Management) for their assistance and coopera tion in conducting the seed oil cooking source tests, Eric Grosjean and Daniel Grosjean (DGA, Inc.) for preparation and analysis the C_(18) cartridges used for carbonyls, Rei Rasmussen (Oregon Graduate Institute) for preparation and analysis of the SUMA canisters used for NMHC measure ments, and Lynn Salmon (Caltech) for conducting the ion chromatography analyses. This research was supported by the California Air Resources Board under Agreement number A93-329.

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