Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol–gel process
We report high-Q sol–gel microresonators on silicon chips, fabricated directly from a sol–gel layer deposited onto a silicon substrate. Quality factors as high as 2.5×10^7 at 1561 nm were obtained in toroidal microcavities formed of silica sol–gel, which allowed Raman lasing at absorbed pump powers below 1 mW. Additionally, Er3+-doped microlasers were fabricated from Er3+-doped sol–gel layers with control of the laser dynamics possible by varying the erbium concentration of the starting sol–gel material. Continuous lasing with a threshold of 660 nW for erbium-doped microlaser was also obtained.